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01.04.2020 | Ausgabe 2/2021

Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 2/2021

Very early discharge after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations: is this the future?

Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology > Ausgabe 2/2021
Marc-Alexander Ohlow, Hassan Awada, Moritz Laubscher, J. Christoph Geller, Michele Brunelli
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To limit the ever-increasing healthcare costs, strategies to minimize hospitalization length are warranted. In this perspective, early discharge (the same day or after < 24 h) post-cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation might represent a useful strategy; nevertheless, it is imperative first to understand the timing of (potentially lethal) complications and evaluate whether this is not only an effective but also a safe clinical decision.


A retrospective cohort analysis of all patients undergoing new CIED implantation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 was conducted. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and timing of complications post CIED implantation were evaluated, and the timing of complications was divided into intra-operative, 0–6 h (h), 6 to 24 h, and > 24 h post-implant. One-year post-implant follow-up (FU) was performed in our CIED clinic.


A total of 1868 patients (68% men, average age 70 years, 85% hypertension, 39% diabetes, 57% coronary artery disease, and average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 41%) received 703 (38%) pacemaker, 448 (24%) implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), 639 (34%) cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices, and 78 (4.2%) cardiac contractility modulation. A total of 199 (11%) patients experienced 214 complications. Most (75%) occurred > 24 h post-implantation (with a median of 7 days). At univariate analysis, complications occurred more often in patients with a lower LVEF, on anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy, and undergoing ICD/CRT-D implantation (p < 0.05 for all).


Most complications occur > 24 h after first time CIED implantation. Therefore, it might not be optimal to discharge patients in ≤ 24 h, unless extensive ambulatory monitoring for complications is available.

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