01.12.2016 | Übersicht | Ausgabe 8/2016
Veterinary allergy diagnosis: past, present and future perspectives
- Allergo Journal
- DVM, PhD Luis Lourenço Martins, Ofélia Pereira Bento, Filipe Fernando Inácio
Fleas, several aeroallergens as well as many food allergens are the most common allergenic sources for animals and frequent cause of allergic reactions with different target organs such as skin, eyes, and respiratory or digestive systems.
Allergy diagnosis needs to follow well-established guidelines under clinical and laboratory approaches. Since 1980 with the Hanifin & Rajka’s criteria for the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in humans, successive proposals have been developed to identify atopic dermatitis in dogs. A consensual plan was first proposed by Willemse in 1986 undergoing several modifications in 1994. Prélaud and colleagues made important changes to the plan in 1998 and it was further adjusted by Favrot in 2009. In 2010, this plan was approved by the International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis (CAD). It was subjected in 2015 to minor updates with regard to therapeutic options.
To improve diagnostic accuracy by integrating the basic knowledge on sensitization development and allergen nature and diversity, allergen sources and implicated molecular allergens for animals should be clearly identified. As well as in human medicine, this molecular epidemiology concept is essential for the veterinary allergy diagnosis in the near future, standing as the basis of a component-resolved diagnosis (CRD). Besides current pharmacotherapy, it will be highly relevant to increase the efficiency of the avoidance measures and specific immunotherapy.
Clinical guidelines will lead to at least 80 % of positive diagnosis of atopy, but newer laboratory methods in veterinary medicine aiming to a more precise diagnosis and a better integration of the clinical/laboratory diagnostic course are needed.
Allergoms identification for animals, from different allergen sources proteoms should become a priority in veterinary allergology, in order to allow the intended CRD, which is essential to understand the cross-reaction phenomena, allowing a more precise and possibly effective component-resolved immunotherapy (CRIT). Further research has been carried out for a better understanding of the interaction between allergic clinical condition and immune pathophysiology.
As well as in human medicine, a deeper knowledge of the molecular immunological mechanisms in veterinary allergy — with their specific allergen triggers — will also provide the veterinary allergist with the necessary information to act more efficiently in the future.