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The author performed a literature search, and wrote and approved the final manuscript.
Spontaneous pneumothorax is usually caused by the rupture of subpleural blebs/bullae in the underlying lung and is one of the most common elective applications of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). VATS has been used as an alternative to thoracotomy in the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. Recurrent pneumothorax and persistent air leakage are quite often indications for spontaneous pneumothorax, and bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax is also considered to be an indication for surgical intervention. The goals of surgical intervention are to eliminate intrapleural air collection and prevent recurrence. Diverse procedures have been reported in the surgical treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax. We review the literature regarding the VATS approach for spontaneous pneumothorax.