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27.03.2020 | Review | Ausgabe 4/2021 Open Access

Pediatric Nephrology 4/2021

Virus-specific T cells in pediatric renal transplantation

Zeitschrift:
Pediatric Nephrology > Ausgabe 4/2021
Autoren:
Thurid Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Lars Pape
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Abstract

After pediatric kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy causes an increased risk of severe viral complications, especially from cytomegalovirus (CMV), BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and less frequent from adenovirus (ADV). However, suitable predictive markers for the individual outcome of viral infections are missing and the therapeutic management remains a challenge to the success of pediatric kidney transplantation. Virus-specific T cells are known for controlling viral replication and there is growing evidence that virus-specific T cells may serve as a prognostic marker to identify patients at risk for viral complications. This review provides an overview of the usability of virus-specific T cells for improving diagnostic and therapeutic management of viral infections with reference to the necessity of antiviral prophylaxis, timing of pre-emptive therapy, and dosing of immunosuppressive medication after pediatric kidney transplantation. Several studies demonstrated that high levels of virus-specific T cells are associated with decrease of virus load and favorable outcome, whereas lack of virus-specific T cells coincided with virus-induced complications. Accordingly, the additional monitoring of virus-specific T cells aims to personalize the management of antiviral therapy, identify overimmunosuppression, and avoid unnecessary therapeutic interventions. Prospective randomized trials in pediatric kidney recipients comparing standard antiviral and immunosuppressive regimens with T cell-guided therapeutic interventions are needed, before monitoring of virus-specific T cells is implemented in the routine care of pediatric kidney graft recipients.

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