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27.04.2019 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 3/2019 Open Access

Acta Neuropathologica 3/2019

Vitamin D increases glucocorticoid efficacy via inhibition of mTORC1 in experimental models of multiple sclerosis

Zeitschrift:
Acta Neuropathologica > Ausgabe 3/2019
Autoren:
Robert Hoepner, Maud Bagnoud, Maximilian Pistor, Anke Salmen, Myriam Briner, Helen Synn, Lisa Schrewe, Kirsten Guse, Farhad Ahmadi, Seray Demir, Louis Laverick, Melissa Gresle, Paul Worley, Holger Michael Reichardt, Helmut Butzkueven, Ralf Gold, Imke Metz, Fred Lühder, Andrew Chan
Wichtige Hinweise

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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00401-019-02018-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

The limited efficacy of glucocorticoids (GCs) during therapy of acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to long-term disability. We investigated the potential of vitamin D (VD) to enhance GC efficacy and the mechanisms underlying this VD/GC interaction. In vitro, GC receptor (GR) expression levels were quantified by ELISA and induction of T cell apoptosis served as a functional readout to assess synergistic 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D)/GC effects. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (MOG35–55 EAE) was induced in mice with T cell-specific GR or mTORc1 deficiency. 25(OH)D (25D) levels were determined in two independent cohorts of MS patients with stable disease or relapses either responsive or resistant to GC treatment (initial cohort: n = 110; validation cohort: n = 85). Gene expression of human CD8+ T cells was analyzed by microarray (n = 112) and correlated with 25D serum levels. In vitro, 1,25D upregulated GR protein levels, leading to increased GC-induced T cell apoptosis. 1,25D/GC combination therapy ameliorated clinical EAE course more efficiently than respective monotherapies, which was dependent on GR expression in T cells. In MS patients from two independent cohorts, 25D deficiency was associated with GC-resistant relapses. Mechanistic studies revealed that synergistic 1,25D/GC effects on apoptosis induction were mediated by the mTOR but not JNK pathway. In line, 1,25D inhibited mTORc1 activity in murine T cells, and low 25D levels in humans were associated with a reduced expression of mTORc1 inhibiting tuberous sclerosis complex 1 in CD8+ T cells. GR upregulation by 1,25D and 1,25D/GC synergism in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo were abolished in animals with a T cell-specific mTORc1 deficiency. Specific inhibition of mTORc1 by everolimus increased the efficacy of GC in EAE. 1,25D augments GC-mediated effects in vitro and in vivo in a T cell-specific, GR-dependent manner via mTORc1 inhibition. These data may have implications for improvement of anti-inflammatory GC therapy.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 64 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (JPG 2012 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (JPG 2098 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (JPG 2077 kb)
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Supplementary material 5 (JPG 2660 kb)
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Supplementary material 6 (JPG 2574 kb)
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Supplementary material 7 (JPG 2331 kb)
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Supplementary material 8 (XLSX 68 kb)
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