Dipstick test is widely used to support the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI). It is effective in ruling out UTI, but urine culture is needed for diagnosis confirmation. In this study we compared the accuracy of voltammetric analysis (VA) with that of DT to detect UTI (diagnosed using urine culture), and its usefulness as a second-stage test in people with positive DT.
142 patients were enrolled with no exclusion criteria. VA was performed using the BIONOTE device. Partial Least Square Discrimination Analysis was used to predict UTI based on VA data; diagnostic performance was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR), accuracy, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR).
Mean age was 76.6 years (SD 12.6), 57% were male. VA had a better overall performance respect to DT in detecting UTI with accuracy 81.7% vs 75.9%, specificity 90.8% vs 82.5%, PPV 75% vs 61.4%, positive LR 6.68 vs 3.5, DOR 17.7 vs 7.47; sensibility, NPV and negative LR of the two tests were similar. VA had an accuracy of 82.4% in discriminating bacterial from fungal infections. When added as a second-stage test, VA identified 9 of the 17 false positive patients, with a net specificity of 91.7%, sensitivity 54%, PPV 75% and NPV 81%.
VA is a quick and easy method that may be used as a second stage after DT to reduce the number of urine culture and of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions.