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01.01.2016 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2016

Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 1/2016

What proportion of women refers moderate to severe pain during office hysteroscopy with a mini-hysteroscope? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics > Ausgabe 1/2016
Antonio Augusto Santos Paulo, Maria Helena Ruivo Solheiro, Carolina Oliveira Santos Paulo, Vera Mónica Almeida Afreixo



Mini-hysteroscopy is believed to be pain-free or in the least bearable. Office procedures are therefore usually performed without analgesia or anesthesia. Is it indeed as tolerable as papers and authors suggest?


To estimate what proportion of women reports moderate to severe discomfort during examination using the smaller diameter scopes.

Search strategy

Online sources were search with key words “hysteroscopy” and “pain” from 2000 to December 2014. Thirty-five articles were retrieved for detailed analysis.

Selection criteria

Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and well-designed prospective trials (PT) studying pain as main outcome, in office mini-hysteroscopy in at least one arm. Studies or arms within a study where conscientious sedation, anesthesia, or non-steroidal drugs were used were excluded. Chosen data collected was the number of women referring moderate to severe pain compared to total women with intervention in the arm or study. Authors were contacted to try to retrieve unpublished data for analysis.

Data collection and analysis

We performed a meta-analysis from eight studies (six RCT and two PT) comparing pain reported as moderate or severe to total women in mini-hysteroscopy.

Main results

A meta-analysis estimated the pooled prevalence of pain (>3–10 on 10 cm visual analog scale) for all studies and by two subgroups: (1) RCT and (2) PT. Due to significant heterogeneity between studies, we used the random effects model. Results revealed a high prevalence of pain in outpatient mini-hysteroscopy.


Office mini-hysteroscopy is painful.

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