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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Youth injury prevention in Canada: use of the Delphi method to develop recommendations

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Ian Pike, Shannon Piedt, Colleen M. Davison, Kelly Russell, Alison K. Macpherson, William Pickett
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12889-015-2600-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

IP planned the research, invited the expert stakeholders to participate, facilitated the modified-Delphi process, led the writing and editing of the manuscript and is guarantor of the paper. SP provided project coordination, assisted with the facilitation of the modified-Delphi process, and assisted with drafting and editing the manuscript. CD, KR and WP provided expertise on Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants, consulted on methodology and reviewed and edited the manuscript. AKM consulted on methodology and reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

IP: co-Principal Investigator of the CIHR Team in Child and Youth Injury Prevention; Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia; Scientist, Child and Family Research Institute; Director of the British Columbia Injury Research and Prevention Unit; Co-executive Director, The Community Against Preventable Injuries. SP: Research Coordinator, British Columbia Injury Research and Prevention Unit and CIHR Team in Child and Youth Injury Prevention. CD: Assistant Professor and Research Scientist, Department of Public Health Sciences, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kingston General Hospital Research Centre. KR: Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba. WP: Professor and Head, Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University. AKM: Professor, Kinesiology and Health Science, York University; co-Principal Investigator of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Team in Child and Youth Injury Prevention; CIHR Chair in Reproductive, Child and Youth Health.



The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey is one of very few cross-national health surveys that includes information on injury occurrence and prevention within adolescent populations. A collaboration to develop a Canadian youth injury report using these data resulted in, Injury among Young Canadians: A national study of contextual determinants. The objective of this study was to develop specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations arising from the national report, using a modified-Delphi process with a panel of expert stakeholders.


Eight injury prevention experts and a 3-person youth advisory team associated with a Canadian injury prevention organization (Parachute Canada) reviewed, edited and commented on report recommendations through a three-stage iterative modified-Delphi process.


From an initial list of 27 draft recommendations, the modified-Delphi process resulted in a final list of 19 specific recommendations, worded to resonate with the group(s) responsible to lead or take the recommended action. Two recommendations were rated as “extremely important” or “very important” by 100 % of the expert panel, two were deleted, a further two recommendations were deleted but the content included as text in the report, and four were merged with other existing recommendations.


The modified-Delphi process was an appropriate method to achieve agreement on 19 specific evidence-based, policy-oriented recommendations to complement the national youth injury report. In providing their input, it is noted that the injury stakeholders each acted as individual experts, unattached to any organizational position or policy. These recommendations will require multidisciplinary collaborations in order to support the proposed policy development, additional research, programming and clear decision-making for youth injury prevention.
Additional file 1: Table of Recommendations changed_deleted through project. (PDF 338 kb)
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