06.11.2019 | Original Research | Ausgabe 5/2020
Zero-heat-flux core temperature monitoring system: an observational secondary analysis to evaluate agreement with naso-/oropharyngeal probe during anesthesia
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
- Nicholas West, Erin Cooke, Dan Morse, Richard N. Merchant, Matthias Görges
General anesthesia impairs thermoregulation and contributes to perioperative hypothermia; core body temperature monitoring is recommended during surgical procedures lasting > 30 min. Zero-heat-flux core body temperature measurement systems enable continuous non-invasive perioperative monitoring. During a previous trial evaluating the benefits of preoperative forced-air warming, intraoperative temperatures were measured with both a zero-heat-flux sensor and a standard naso-/oropharyngeal temperature probe. The aim of this secondary analysis is to evaluate their agreement. ASA I–III patients, scheduled for elective, non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia, were enrolled. A zero-heat-flux sensor was placed on the participant’s forehead preoperatively. Following induction of anesthesia, a “clinical” temperature probe was placed in the nasopharynx or oropharynx at the anesthesiologist’s discretion. Temperature measurements from both sensors were recorded every 10 s. Agreement was analyzed using the Bland–Altman method, corrected for repeated measurements, and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, and compared with existing studies. Data were collected in 194 patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 60 (49–69) years, during surgical procedures lasting 120 (89–185) min. The zero-heat-flux measurements had a mean bias of − 0.05 °C (zero-heat-flux lower) with 95% limits of agreement within − 0.68 to + 0.58 °C. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was 0.823. The zero-heat-flux sensor demonstrated moderate agreement with the naso-/oropharyngeal temperature probe, which was not fully within the generally accepted ± 0.5 °C limit. This is consistent with previous studies. The zero-heat-flux system offers clinical utility for non-invasive and continuous core body temperature monitoring throughout the perioperative period using a single sensor.