Skip to main content
Erschienen in: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 6/2022

18.10.2021 | Invited Review Article

Challenges in Optimizing Lipid Management in Women

verfasst von: Kellsey A. Peterson, Gurleen Kaur, Eugenia Gianos, Sulagna Mookherjee, Kim A. Poli, Mandeep S. Sidhu, Radmila Lyubarova

Erschienen in: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy | Ausgabe 6/2022

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

While there are physiologic differences in lipid metabolism in men and women, pharmacologic therapy is very effective in both with similar management strategies recommended in the current guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia. Despite similar guidelines for treatment, studies have shown that women have worse control of dyslipidemia than their male counterparts. This may stem from multiple contributing factors including underestimation of cardiovascular disease risk in women, decreased prescription and utilization of lipid-lowering therapies, decreased medication adherence, and higher risk of statin intolerance, all of which may contribute to lower attainment of lipid targets. Furthermore, heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in women, with heart disease noted an average of 7–10 years later than in men. This has historically led to the misperception that women are protected from heart disease and can be treated less aggressively. In fact, traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease often impact risk in women to a greater extent than they do in men. Unique risk factors such as pregnancy-related disorders also contribute to the level of risk and therefore warrant consideration in risk stratification. This review summarizes the efficacy of contemporary lipid-lowering therapies in women versus men and discusses the challenges that arise with lipid management in women along with potential ways to tackle these obstacles.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Li Z, McNamara JR, Fruchart JC, et al. Effects of gender and menopausal status on plasma lipoprotein subspecies and particle sizes. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:1886–96.PubMedCrossRef Li Z, McNamara JR, Fruchart JC, et al. Effects of gender and menopausal status on plasma lipoprotein subspecies and particle sizes. J Lipid Res. 1996;37:1886–96.PubMedCrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Swiger KJ, Martin SS, Blaha MJ, et al. Narrowing sex differences in lipoprotein cholesterol subclasses following mid-life: the very large database of lipids (VLDL-10B). J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e000851.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Swiger KJ, Martin SS, Blaha MJ, et al. Narrowing sex differences in lipoprotein cholesterol subclasses following mid-life: the very large database of lipids (VLDL-10B). J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3:e000851.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Pascot A, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, et al. HDL particle size: a marker of the gender difference in the metabolic risk profile. Atherosclerosis. 2002;160:399–406.PubMedCrossRef Pascot A, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, et al. HDL particle size: a marker of the gender difference in the metabolic risk profile. Atherosclerosis. 2002;160:399–406.PubMedCrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Cohn SD, et al. Effects of age, gender, and menopausal status on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in the Framingham Offspring Study. J Lipid Res. 1994;35:779–92.PubMedCrossRef Schaefer EJ, Lamon-Fava S, Cohn SD, et al. Effects of age, gender, and menopausal status on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels in the Framingham Offspring Study. J Lipid Res. 1994;35:779–92.PubMedCrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang Y, Klein K, Sugathan A, et al. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2011;6:e23506.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhang Y, Klein K, Sugathan A, et al. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease. PLoS One. 2011;6:e23506.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2020 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020;141:e139–596.PubMedCrossRef Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2020 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020;141:e139–596.PubMedCrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Magkos F, Patterson BW, Mohammed BS, Klein S, Mittendorfer B. Women produce fewer but triglyceride-richer very low-density lipoproteins than men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1311–8.PubMedCrossRef Magkos F, Patterson BW, Mohammed BS, Klein S, Mittendorfer B. Women produce fewer but triglyceride-richer very low-density lipoproteins than men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1311–8.PubMedCrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Matthan NR, Jalbert SM, Barrett PH, et al. Gender-specific differences in the kinetics of nonfasting TRL, IDL, and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 in men and premenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1838–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Matthan NR, Jalbert SM, Barrett PH, et al. Gender-specific differences in the kinetics of nonfasting TRL, IDL, and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 in men and premenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1838–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Ryu S, Suh BS, Chang Y, et al. Menopausal stages and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;190:65–70.PubMedCrossRef Ryu S, Suh BS, Chang Y, et al. Menopausal stages and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;190:65–70.PubMedCrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhu L, Brown WC, Cai Q, et al. Estrogen treatment after ovariectomy protects against fatty liver and may improve pathway-selective insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013;62:424–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhu L, Brown WC, Cai Q, et al. Estrogen treatment after ovariectomy protects against fatty liver and may improve pathway-selective insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2013;62:424–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang H, Liu Y, Wang L, et al. Differential effects of estrogen/androgen on the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the male rat. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:345–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhang H, Liu Y, Wang L, et al. Differential effects of estrogen/androgen on the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the male rat. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:345–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Ghosh M, Gälman C, Rudling M, Angelin B. Influence of physiological changes in endogenous estrogen on circulating PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:463–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Ghosh M, Gälman C, Rudling M, Angelin B. Influence of physiological changes in endogenous estrogen on circulating PCSK9 and LDL cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:463–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
14.
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Badeau RM, Metso J, Kovanen PT, et al. The impact of gender and serum estradiol levels on HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Eur J Clin Invest. 2013;43:317–23.PubMedCrossRef Badeau RM, Metso J, Kovanen PT, et al. The impact of gender and serum estradiol levels on HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport. Eur J Clin Invest. 2013;43:317–23.PubMedCrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Canoy D, Boekholdt SM, Wareham N, et al. Body fat distribution and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk cohort: a population-based prospective study. Circulation. 2007;116:2933–43.PubMedCrossRef Canoy D, Boekholdt SM, Wareham N, et al. Body fat distribution and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk cohort: a population-based prospective study. Circulation. 2007;116:2933–43.PubMedCrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Park SJ, Yang HM, Seo KW, et al. The relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and body fat distribution measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Atherosclerosis. 2016;248:190–5.PubMedCrossRef Park SJ, Yang HM, Seo KW, et al. The relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and body fat distribution measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Atherosclerosis. 2016;248:190–5.PubMedCrossRef
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Pilote L, Raparelli V. Participation of women in clinical trials: not yet time to rest on our laurels. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1970–2.PubMedCrossRef Pilote L, Raparelli V. Participation of women in clinical trials: not yet time to rest on our laurels. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1970–2.PubMedCrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Scott PE, Unger EF, Jenkins MR, et al. Participation of women in clinical trials supporting FDA approval of cardiovascular drugs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1960–9.PubMedCrossRef Scott PE, Unger EF, Jenkins MR, et al. Participation of women in clinical trials supporting FDA approval of cardiovascular drugs. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1960–9.PubMedCrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Khan SU, Khan MZ, Raghu Subramanian C, et al. Participation of women and older participants in randomized clinical trials of lipid-lowering therapies: a systematic review. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3:e205202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Khan SU, Khan MZ, Raghu Subramanian C, et al. Participation of women and older participants in randomized clinical trials of lipid-lowering therapies: a systematic review. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3:e205202.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Khan MS, Shahid I, Siddiqi TJ, et al. Ten-year trends in enrollment of women and minorities in pivotal trials supporting recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of novel cardiometabolic drugs. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9:e015594.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Khan MS, Shahid I, Siddiqi TJ, et al. Ten-year trends in enrollment of women and minorities in pivotal trials supporting recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of novel cardiometabolic drugs. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9:e015594.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang SC, Koutroumpakis E, Schulman-Marcus J, et al. Sex differences remain under-reported in cardiovascular publications. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021;30(9):1253–8.CrossRef Wang SC, Koutroumpakis E, Schulman-Marcus J, et al. Sex differences remain under-reported in cardiovascular publications. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021;30(9):1253–8.CrossRef
23.
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Petretta M, Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Chiariello M. Impact of gender in primary prevention of coronary heart disease with statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2010;138:25–31.PubMedCrossRef Petretta M, Costanzo P, Perrone-Filardi P, Chiariello M. Impact of gender in primary prevention of coronary heart disease with statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2010;138:25–31.PubMedCrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Nakamura H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among hypercholesterolemic Japanese with a low dose of pravastatin. Atheroscler Suppl. 2007;8:13–7.PubMedCrossRef Nakamura H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among hypercholesterolemic Japanese with a low dose of pravastatin. Atheroscler Suppl. 2007;8:13–7.PubMedCrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Hughes MF. Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action. Toxicol Lett. 2002;133:1–16.PubMedCrossRef Hughes MF. Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action. Toxicol Lett. 2002;133:1–16.PubMedCrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Mora S, Glynn RJ, Hsia J, et al. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or dyslipidemia: results from the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) and meta-analysis of women from primary prevention trials. Circulation. 2010;121:1069–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mora S, Glynn RJ, Hsia J, et al. Statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in women with elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein or dyslipidemia: results from the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) and meta-analysis of women from primary prevention trials. Circulation. 2010;121:1069–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Erqou S, et al. Statins and all-cause mortality in high-risk primary prevention: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 65,229 participants. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1024–31.PubMedCrossRef Ray KK, Seshasai SR, Erqou S, et al. Statins and all-cause mortality in high-risk primary prevention: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials involving 65,229 participants. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1024–31.PubMedCrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, et al. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet. 2005;366:1267–78.PubMedCrossRef Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, et al. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trials of statins. Lancet. 2005;366:1267–78.PubMedCrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Gulati M, Merz CN. Advances in lipid therapy: the role of lipid treatment in women in primary prevention. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;59:178–89.PubMedCrossRef Gulati M, Merz CN. Advances in lipid therapy: the role of lipid treatment in women in primary prevention. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2016;59:178–89.PubMedCrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Kostis WJ, Cheng JQ, Dobrzynski JM, Cabrera J, Kostis JB. Meta-analysis of statin effects in women versus men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:572–82.PubMedCrossRef Kostis WJ, Cheng JQ, Dobrzynski JM, Cabrera J, Kostis JB. Meta-analysis of statin effects in women versus men. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:572–82.PubMedCrossRef
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Fulcher J, O’Connell R, Voysey M, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015;385:1397–405.PubMedCrossRef Fulcher J, O’Connell R, Voysey M, et al. Efficacy and safety of LDL-lowering therapy among men and women: meta-analysis of individual data from 174,000 participants in 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015;385:1397–405.PubMedCrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:7-22. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:7-22.
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Hague W, Forder P, Simes J, Hunt D, Tonkin A. Effect of pravastatin on cardiovascular events and mortality in 1516 women with coronary heart disease: results from the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) study. Am Heart J. 2003;145:643–51.PubMedCrossRef Hague W, Forder P, Simes J, Hunt D, Tonkin A. Effect of pravastatin on cardiovascular events and mortality in 1516 women with coronary heart disease: results from the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) study. Am Heart J. 2003;145:643–51.PubMedCrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Puri R, Nissen SE, Shao M, et al. Sex-related differences of coronary atherosclerosis regression following maximally intensive statin therapy: insights from SATURN. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;7:1013–22.PubMedCrossRef Puri R, Nissen SE, Shao M, et al. Sex-related differences of coronary atherosclerosis regression following maximally intensive statin therapy: insights from SATURN. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014;7:1013–22.PubMedCrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Wenger NK, Lewis SJ, Welty FK, Herrington DM, Bittner V. Beneficial effects of aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in women with stable coronary heart disease in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study. Heart. 2008;94:434–9.PubMedCrossRef Wenger NK, Lewis SJ, Welty FK, Herrington DM, Bittner V. Beneficial effects of aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering in women with stable coronary heart disease in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study. Heart. 2008;94:434–9.PubMedCrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Truong QA, Murphy SA, McCabe CH, Armani A, Cannon CP. Benefit of intensive statin therapy in women: results from PROVE IT-TIMI 22. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011;4:328–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Truong QA, Murphy SA, McCabe CH, Armani A, Cannon CP. Benefit of intensive statin therapy in women: results from PROVE IT-TIMI 22. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2011;4:328–36.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Gutierrez J, Ramirez G, Rundek T, Sacco RL. Statin therapy in the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events: a sex-based meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:909–19.PubMedCrossRef Gutierrez J, Ramirez G, Rundek T, Sacco RL. Statin therapy in the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events: a sex-based meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:909–19.PubMedCrossRef
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1349-57. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1349-57.
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Willerson JT. Effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Circulation. 1996;94:3054.PubMedCrossRef Willerson JT. Effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Circulation. 1996;94:3054.PubMedCrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Kato ET, Cannon CP, Blazing MA et al. Efficacy and safety of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy among women and men: insight from IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6(11):e006901. Kato ET, Cannon CP, Blazing MA et al. Efficacy and safety of adding ezetimibe to statin therapy among women and men: insight from IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6(11):e006901.
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Sever P, Gouni-Berthold I, Keech A et al. LDL-cholesterol lowering with evolocumab, and outcomes according to age and sex in patients in the FOURIER Trial. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020. Online ahead of print. Sever P, Gouni-Berthold I, Keech A et al. LDL-cholesterol lowering with evolocumab, and outcomes according to age and sex in patients in the FOURIER Trial. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020. Online ahead of print.
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, et al. Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:2097–107.PubMedCrossRef Schwartz GG, Steg PG, Szarek M, et al. Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2018;379:2097–107.PubMedCrossRef
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1563–74.PubMedCrossRef Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC, et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1563–74.PubMedCrossRef
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, et al. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:1849–61.PubMedCrossRef Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, et al. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;366:1849–61.PubMedCrossRef
46.
Zurück zum Zitat d’Emden MC, Jenkins AJ, Li L, et al. Favourable effects of fenofibrate on lipids and cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes: results from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. Diabetologia. 2014;57:2296–303.PubMedCrossRef d’Emden MC, Jenkins AJ, Li L, et al. Favourable effects of fenofibrate on lipids and cardiovascular disease in women with type 2 diabetes: results from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. Diabetologia. 2014;57:2296–303.PubMedCrossRef
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Landray MJ, Haynes R, Hopewell JC, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:203–12.PubMedCrossRef Landray MJ, Haynes R, Hopewell JC, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin with laropiprant in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:203–12.PubMedCrossRef
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Boden WE, Probstfield JL, Anderson T, et al. Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2255–67.PubMedCrossRef Boden WE, Probstfield JL, Anderson T, et al. Niacin in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels receiving intensive statin therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2255–67.PubMedCrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1090–8.PubMedCrossRef Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet. 2007;369:1090–8.PubMedCrossRef
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Guyton JR, et al. Lipid effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR trial subanalysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27:1170–6.PubMedCentralCrossRef Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Guyton JR, et al. Lipid effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR trial subanalysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27:1170–6.PubMedCentralCrossRef
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Peters SA, Huxley RR, Woodward M. Diabetes as risk factor for incident coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts including 858,507 individuals and 28,203 coronary events. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1542–51.PubMedCrossRef Peters SA, Huxley RR, Woodward M. Diabetes as risk factor for incident coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 64 cohorts including 858,507 individuals and 28,203 coronary events. Diabetologia. 2014;57:1542–51.PubMedCrossRef
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:11–22.PubMedCrossRef Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:11–22.PubMedCrossRef
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Nicholls SJ, Lincoff AM, Garcia M, et al. Effect of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids vs corn oil on major adverse cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk: the STRENGTH randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324:2268–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Nicholls SJ, Lincoff AM, Garcia M, et al. Effect of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids vs corn oil on major adverse cardiovascular events in patients at high cardiovascular risk: the STRENGTH randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324:2268–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Kalstad AA, Myhre PL, Laake K, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements in elderly patients after myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2021;143(6):528–39.PubMedCrossRef Kalstad AA, Myhre PL, Laake K, et al. Effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements in elderly patients after myocardial infarction: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2021;143(6):528–39.PubMedCrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat De Smedt D, De Bacquer D, De Sutter J, et al. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology. Int J Cardiol. 2016;209:284–90.PubMedCrossRef De Smedt D, De Bacquer D, De Sutter J, et al. The gender gap in risk factor control: Effects of age and education on the control of cardiovascular risk factors in male and female coronary patients. The EUROASPIRE IV study by the European Society of Cardiology. Int J Cardiol. 2016;209:284–90.PubMedCrossRef
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Chopra I, Kamal KM. Factors associated with therapeutic goal attainment in patients with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia. Hosp Pract. 1995;2014(42):77–88. Chopra I, Kamal KM. Factors associated with therapeutic goal attainment in patients with concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia. Hosp Pract. 1995;2014(42):77–88.
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Schoen MW, Tabak RG, Salas J, Scherrer JF, Buckhold FR. Comparison of adherence to guideline-based cholesterol treatment goals in men versus women. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:48–53.PubMedCrossRef Schoen MW, Tabak RG, Salas J, Scherrer JF, Buckhold FR. Comparison of adherence to guideline-based cholesterol treatment goals in men versus women. Am J Cardiol. 2016;117:48–53.PubMedCrossRef
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Victor BM, Teal V, Ahedor L, Karalis DG. Gender differences in achieving optimal lipid goals in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:1611–5.PubMedCrossRef Victor BM, Teal V, Ahedor L, Karalis DG. Gender differences in achieving optimal lipid goals in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2014;113:1611–5.PubMedCrossRef
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhao M, Woodward M, Vaartjes I, et al. Sex differences in cardiovascular medication prescription in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9:e014742.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhao M, Woodward M, Vaartjes I, et al. Sex differences in cardiovascular medication prescription in primary care: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9:e014742.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
60.
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Blomkalns AL, Chen AY, Hochman JS, et al. Gender disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: large-scale observations from the CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) National Quality Improvement Initiative. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:832–7.PubMedCrossRef Blomkalns AL, Chen AY, Hochman JS, et al. Gender disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: large-scale observations from the CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) National Quality Improvement Initiative. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:832–7.PubMedCrossRef
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Peters SAE, Colantonio LD, Zhao H, et al. Sex differences in high-intensity statin use following myocardial infarction in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1729–37.PubMedCrossRef Peters SAE, Colantonio LD, Zhao H, et al. Sex differences in high-intensity statin use following myocardial infarction in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71:1729–37.PubMedCrossRef
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Smolina K, Ball L, Humphries KH, Khan N, Morgan SG. Sex disparities in post-acute myocardial infarction pharmacologic treatment initiation and adherence: problem for young women. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:586–92.PubMedCrossRef Smolina K, Ball L, Humphries KH, Khan N, Morgan SG. Sex disparities in post-acute myocardial infarction pharmacologic treatment initiation and adherence: problem for young women. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:586–92.PubMedCrossRef
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldstein KM, Zullig LL, Bastian LA, Bosworth HB. Statin adherence: does gender matter? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2016;18:63.PubMedCrossRef Goldstein KM, Zullig LL, Bastian LA, Bosworth HB. Statin adherence: does gender matter? Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2016;18:63.PubMedCrossRef
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Lewey J, Shrank WH, Bowry AD, et al. Gender and racial disparities in adherence to statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J. 2013;165:665–78 (78 e1).PubMedCrossRef Lewey J, Shrank WH, Bowry AD, et al. Gender and racial disparities in adherence to statin therapy: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J. 2013;165:665–78 (78 e1).PubMedCrossRef
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Manteuffel M, Williams S, Chen W, et al. Influence of patient sex and gender on medication use, adherence, and prescribing alignment with guidelines. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23:112–9.CrossRef Manteuffel M, Williams S, Chen W, et al. Influence of patient sex and gender on medication use, adherence, and prescribing alignment with guidelines. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23:112–9.CrossRef
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Billimek J, Malik S, Sorkin DH, et al. Understanding disparities in lipid management among patients with type 2 diabetes: gender differences in medication nonadherence after treatment intensification. Womens Health Issues. 2015;25:6–12.PubMedCrossRef Billimek J, Malik S, Sorkin DH, et al. Understanding disparities in lipid management among patients with type 2 diabetes: gender differences in medication nonadherence after treatment intensification. Womens Health Issues. 2015;25:6–12.PubMedCrossRef
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Dempe C, Junger J, Hoppe S, et al. Association of anxious and depressive symptoms with medication nonadherence in patients with stable coronary artery disease. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74:122–7.PubMedCrossRef Dempe C, Junger J, Hoppe S, et al. Association of anxious and depressive symptoms with medication nonadherence in patients with stable coronary artery disease. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74:122–7.PubMedCrossRef
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Mosca L, Mochari-Greenberger H, Dolor RJ, Newby LK, Robb KJ. Twelve-year follow-up of American women’s awareness of cardiovascular disease risk and barriers to heart health. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010;3:120–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mosca L, Mochari-Greenberger H, Dolor RJ, Newby LK, Robb KJ. Twelve-year follow-up of American women’s awareness of cardiovascular disease risk and barriers to heart health. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010;3:120–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Abuful A, Gidron Y, Henkin Y. Physicians’ attitudes toward preventive therapy for coronary artery disease: is there a gender bias? Clin Cardiol. 2005;28:389–93.PubMedCrossRef Abuful A, Gidron Y, Henkin Y. Physicians’ attitudes toward preventive therapy for coronary artery disease: is there a gender bias? Clin Cardiol. 2005;28:389–93.PubMedCrossRef
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Hemal K, Pagidipati NJ, Coles A, et al. Sex Differences in demographics, risk factors, presentation, and noninvasive testing in stable outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease: insights from the PROMISE trial. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016;9:337–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Hemal K, Pagidipati NJ, Coles A, et al. Sex Differences in demographics, risk factors, presentation, and noninvasive testing in stable outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease: insights from the PROMISE trial. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016;9:337–46.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Karalis DG, Wild RA, Maki KC, et al. Gender differences in side effects and attitudes regarding statin use in the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE) study. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:833–41.PubMedCrossRef Karalis DG, Wild RA, Maki KC, et al. Gender differences in side effects and attitudes regarding statin use in the Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE) study. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:833–41.PubMedCrossRef
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Leifheit-Limson EC, D’Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, et al. Sex differences in cardiac risk factors, perceived risk, and health care provider discussion of risk and risk modification among young patients with acute myocardial infarction: the VIRGO study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:1949–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Leifheit-Limson EC, D’Onofrio G, Daneshvar M, et al. Sex differences in cardiac risk factors, perceived risk, and health care provider discussion of risk and risk modification among young patients with acute myocardial infarction: the VIRGO study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;66:1949–57.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Mosca L, Hammond G, Mochari-Greenberger H, et al. Fifteen-year trends in awareness of heart disease in women: results of a 2012 American Heart Association national survey. Circulation. 2013;127(1254–63):e1-29. Mosca L, Hammond G, Mochari-Greenberger H, et al. Fifteen-year trends in awareness of heart disease in women: results of a 2012 American Heart Association national survey. Circulation. 2013;127(1254–63):e1-29.
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Cushman M, Shay CM, Howard VJ et al. Ten-year differences in women’s awareness related to coronary heart disease: results of the 2019 American Heart Association National Survey: A Special Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;143(7):e239-e248. Cushman M, Shay CM, Howard VJ et al. Ten-year differences in women’s awareness related to coronary heart disease: results of the 2019 American Heart Association National Survey: A Special Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2021;143(7):e239-e248.
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Mauri M, Calmarza P, Ibarretxe D. Dyslipemias and pregnancy, an update. Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2021;33:41–52.PubMed Mauri M, Calmarza P, Ibarretxe D. Dyslipemias and pregnancy, an update. Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2021;33:41–52.PubMed
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;139:e1046–81.PubMed Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;139:e1046–81.PubMed
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Karalis DG, Hill AN, Clifton S, Wild RA. The risks of statin use in pregnancy: a systematic review. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:1081–90.PubMedCrossRef Karalis DG, Hill AN, Clifton S, Wild RA. The risks of statin use in pregnancy: a systematic review. J Clin Lipidol. 2016;10:1081–90.PubMedCrossRef
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Sobotka T. Post-transitional fertility: the role of childbearing postponement in fuelling the shift to low and unstable fertility levels. J Biosoc Sci. 2017;49:S20–45.PubMedCrossRef Sobotka T. Post-transitional fertility: the role of childbearing postponement in fuelling the shift to low and unstable fertility levels. J Biosoc Sci. 2017;49:S20–45.PubMedCrossRef
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Mathews TJ, Hamilton BE. Mean age of mothers is on the rise: United States, 2000-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2016;(232):1-8. Mathews TJ, Hamilton BE. Mean age of mothers is on the rise: United States, 2000-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2016;(232):1-8.
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Jochmann N, Stangl K, Garbe E, Baumann G, Stangl V. Female-specific aspects in the pharmacotherapy of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:1585–95.PubMedCrossRef Jochmann N, Stangl K, Garbe E, Baumann G, Stangl V. Female-specific aspects in the pharmacotherapy of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:1585–95.PubMedCrossRef
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Skilving I, Eriksson M, Rane A, Ovesjo ML. Statin-induced myopathy in a usual care setting-a prospective observational study of gender differences. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;72:1171–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Skilving I, Eriksson M, Rane A, Ovesjo ML. Statin-induced myopathy in a usual care setting-a prospective observational study of gender differences. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;72:1171–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Tamargo J, Rosano G, Walther T, et al. Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2017;3:163–82.PubMedCrossRef Tamargo J, Rosano G, Walther T, et al. Gender differences in the effects of cardiovascular drugs. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2017;3:163–82.PubMedCrossRef
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Pasternak RC, Smith SC Jr, Bairey-Merz CN, et al. ACC/AHA/NHLBI clinical advisory on the use and safety of statins. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:567–72.PubMedCrossRef Pasternak RC, Smith SC Jr, Bairey-Merz CN, et al. ACC/AHA/NHLBI clinical advisory on the use and safety of statins. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:567–72.PubMedCrossRef
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Jacobson TA. Statin safety: lessons from new drug applications for marketed statins. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:44C-51C.PubMedCrossRef Jacobson TA. Statin safety: lessons from new drug applications for marketed statins. Am J Cardiol. 2006;97:44C-51C.PubMedCrossRef
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Insull W Jr, Isaacsohn J, Kwiterovich P, et al. Efficacy and safety of cerivastatin 0.8 mg in patients with hypercholesterolaemia: the pivotal placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cerivastatin Study Group. J Int Med Res. 2000;28:47–68.PubMedCrossRef Insull W Jr, Isaacsohn J, Kwiterovich P, et al. Efficacy and safety of cerivastatin 0.8 mg in patients with hypercholesterolaemia: the pivotal placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cerivastatin Study Group. J Int Med Res. 2000;28:47–68.PubMedCrossRef
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Culver AL, Ockene IS, Balasubramanian R, et al. Statin use and risk of diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:144–52.PubMedCrossRef Culver AL, Ockene IS, Balasubramanian R, et al. Statin use and risk of diabetes mellitus in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:144–52.PubMedCrossRef
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Gurgoze MT, Muller-Hansma AHG, Schreuder MM, et al. Adverse events associated with PCSK9 inhibitors: a real-world experience. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019;105:496–504.PubMedCrossRef Gurgoze MT, Muller-Hansma AHG, Schreuder MM, et al. Adverse events associated with PCSK9 inhibitors: a real-world experience. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019;105:496–504.PubMedCrossRef
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Laufs U, Banach M, Mancini GBJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid in patients with hypercholesterolemia and statin intolerance. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e011662.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Laufs U, Banach M, Mancini GBJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid in patients with hypercholesterolemia and statin intolerance. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e011662.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Banach M, Duell PB, Gotto AM Jr, et al. Association of bempedoic acid administration with atherogenic lipid levels in phase 3 randomized clinical trials of patients with hypercholesterolemia. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(10):1124–35.PubMedCrossRef Banach M, Duell PB, Gotto AM Jr, et al. Association of bempedoic acid administration with atherogenic lipid levels in phase 3 randomized clinical trials of patients with hypercholesterolemia. JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(10):1124–35.PubMedCrossRef
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Mehta LS, Watson KE, Barac A, et al. Cardiovascular disease and breast cancer: where these entities intersect: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;137:e30–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mehta LS, Watson KE, Barac A, et al. Cardiovascular disease and breast cancer: where these entities intersect: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;137:e30–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Desai P, Chlebowski R, Cauley JA, et al. Prospective analysis of association between statin use and breast cancer risk in the women’s health initiative. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1868–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Desai P, Chlebowski R, Cauley JA, et al. Prospective analysis of association between statin use and breast cancer risk in the women’s health initiative. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:1868–76.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Yang J, Li C, Shen Y, et al. Impact of statin use on cancer-specific mortality and recurrence: a meta-analysis of 60 observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99:e19596.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Yang J, Li C, Shen Y, et al. Impact of statin use on cancer-specific mortality and recurrence: a meta-analysis of 60 observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99:e19596.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Bragg F, Holmes MV, Iona A, et al. Association between diabetes and cause-specific mortality in rural and urban areas of China. JAMA. 2017;317:280–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bragg F, Holmes MV, Iona A, et al. Association between diabetes and cause-specific mortality in rural and urban areas of China. JAMA. 2017;317:280–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Emerging Risk Factors C, Sarwar N, Gao P et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010;375:2215-22. Emerging Risk Factors C, Sarwar N, Gao P et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010;375:2215-22.
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Juutilainen A, Kortelainen S, Lehto S, et al. Gender difference in the impact of type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2898–904.PubMedCrossRef Juutilainen A, Kortelainen S, Lehto S, et al. Gender difference in the impact of type 2 diabetes on coronary heart disease risk. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2898–904.PubMedCrossRef
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Huxley R, Barzi F, Woodward M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2006;332:73–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Huxley R, Barzi F, Woodward M. Excess risk of fatal coronary heart disease associated with diabetes in men and women: meta-analysis of 37 prospective cohort studies. BMJ. 2006;332:73–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Prospective Studies C, Asia Pacific Cohort Studies C. Sex-specific relevance of diabetes to occlusive vascular and other mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual data from 980 793 adults from 68 prospective studies. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018;6:538-46. Prospective Studies C, Asia Pacific Cohort Studies C. Sex-specific relevance of diabetes to occlusive vascular and other mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual data from 980 793 adults from 68 prospective studies. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018;6:538-46.
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Breuker C, Clement F, Mura T, et al. Non-achievement of LDL-cholesterol targets in patients with diabetes at very-high cardiovascular risk receiving statin treatment: Incidence and risk factors. Int J Cardiol. 2018;268:195–9.PubMedCrossRef Breuker C, Clement F, Mura T, et al. Non-achievement of LDL-cholesterol targets in patients with diabetes at very-high cardiovascular risk receiving statin treatment: Incidence and risk factors. Int J Cardiol. 2018;268:195–9.PubMedCrossRef
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Clemens KK, Woodward M, Neal B, Zinman B. Sex disparities in cardiovascular outcome trials of populations with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:1157–63.PubMedCrossRef Clemens KK, Woodward M, Neal B, Zinman B. Sex disparities in cardiovascular outcome trials of populations with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:1157–63.PubMedCrossRef
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:213–9.PubMedCrossRef Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1996;3:213–9.PubMedCrossRef
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Bass KM, Newschaffer CJ, Klag MJ, Bush TL. Plasma lipoprotein levels as predictors of cardiovascular death in women. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:2209–16.PubMedCrossRef Bass KM, Newschaffer CJ, Klag MJ, Bush TL. Plasma lipoprotein levels as predictors of cardiovascular death in women. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:2209–16.PubMedCrossRef
103.
Zurück zum Zitat Bittner V, Johnson BD, Zineh I, et al. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio predicts all-cause mortality in women with suspected myocardial ischemia: a report from the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). Am Heart J. 2009;157:548–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Bittner V, Johnson BD, Zineh I, et al. The triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio predicts all-cause mortality in women with suspected myocardial ischemia: a report from the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE). Am Heart J. 2009;157:548–55.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Norris CM, Yip CYY, Nerenberg KA, et al. Introducing the Canadian Women’s Heart Health Alliance ATLAS on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiovascular Diseases in Women. CJC Open. 2020;2:145–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Norris CM, Yip CYY, Nerenberg KA, et al. Introducing the Canadian Women’s Heart Health Alliance ATLAS on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiovascular Diseases in Women. CJC Open. 2020;2:145–50.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Huxley RR, Woodward M. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Lancet. 2011;378:1297–305.PubMedCrossRef Huxley RR, Woodward M. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women compared with men: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Lancet. 2011;378:1297–305.PubMedCrossRef
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Manfrini O, Yoon J, van der Schaar M, et al. Sex differences in modifiable risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9: e017235.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Manfrini O, Yoon J, van der Schaar M, et al. Sex differences in modifiable risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9: e017235.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Sullivan L, Parise H, Kannel WB. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1867–72.PubMedCrossRef Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Sullivan L, Parise H, Kannel WB. Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:1867–72.PubMedCrossRef
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Hermes W, Ket JC, van Pampus MG, et al. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors after hypertensive pregnancy disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2012;67:793–809.PubMedCrossRef Hermes W, Ket JC, van Pampus MG, et al. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors after hypertensive pregnancy disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2012;67:793–809.PubMedCrossRef
109.
Zurück zum Zitat McKenzie-Sampson S, Paradis G, Healy-Profitos J, St-Pierre F, Auger N. Gestational diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease up to 25 years after pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study. Acta Diabetol. 2018;55:315–22.PubMedCrossRef McKenzie-Sampson S, Paradis G, Healy-Profitos J, St-Pierre F, Auger N. Gestational diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease up to 25 years after pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study. Acta Diabetol. 2018;55:315–22.PubMedCrossRef
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Minissian MB, Kilpatrick S, Eastwood JA, et al. Association of spontaneous preterm delivery and future maternal cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2018;137:865–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Minissian MB, Kilpatrick S, Eastwood JA, et al. Association of spontaneous preterm delivery and future maternal cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2018;137:865–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Okoth K, Chandan JS, Marshall T, et al. Association between the reproductive health of young women and cardiovascular disease in later life: umbrella review. BMJ. 2020;371:m3502.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Okoth K, Chandan JS, Marshall T, et al. Association between the reproductive health of young women and cardiovascular disease in later life: umbrella review. BMJ. 2020;371:m3502.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
112.
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhu D, Chung HF, Dobson AJ, et al. Age at natural menopause and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Public Health. 2019;4:e553–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhu D, Chung HF, Dobson AJ, et al. Age at natural menopause and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a pooled analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Public Health. 2019;4:e553–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Muka T, Oliver-Williams C, Kunutsor S, et al. Association of age at onset of menopause and time since onset of menopause with cardiovascular outcomes, intermediate vascular traits, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:767–76.PubMedCrossRef Muka T, Oliver-Williams C, Kunutsor S, et al. Association of age at onset of menopause and time since onset of menopause with cardiovascular outcomes, intermediate vascular traits, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:767–76.PubMedCrossRef
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Roeters van Lennep JE, Heida KY, Bots ML, Hoek A, Collaborators of the Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group on Cardiovascular Risk Management after Reproductive D. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with premature ovarian insufficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23:178-86. Roeters van Lennep JE, Heida KY, Bots ML, Hoek A, Collaborators of the Dutch Multidisciplinary Guideline Development Group on Cardiovascular Risk Management after Reproductive D. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with premature ovarian insufficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016;23:178-86.
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee JJ, Cook-Wiens G, Johnson BD, et al. Age at menarche and risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes: findings from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e012406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Lee JJ, Cook-Wiens G, Johnson BD, et al. Age at menarche and risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes: findings from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute-Sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8:e012406.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhao L, Zhu Z, Lou H, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD): a meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:33715–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zhao L, Zhu Z, Lou H, et al. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD): a meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2016;7:33715–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Ramezani Tehrani F, Amiri M, Behboudi-Gandevani S, Bidhendi-Yarandi R, Carmina E. Cardiovascular events among reproductive and menopausal age women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2020;36:12–23.PubMedCrossRef Ramezani Tehrani F, Amiri M, Behboudi-Gandevani S, Bidhendi-Yarandi R, Carmina E. Cardiovascular events among reproductive and menopausal age women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2020;36:12–23.PubMedCrossRef
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2195–207.PubMedCrossRef Ridker PM, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, et al. Rosuvastatin to prevent vascular events in men and women with elevated C-reactive protein. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2195–207.PubMedCrossRef
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Elder P, Sharma G, Gulati M, Michos E. Identification of female-specific risk enhancers throughout the lifespan of women to improve cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Prev Cardiol. 2020;2:100028.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Elder P, Sharma G, Gulati M, Michos E. Identification of female-specific risk enhancers throughout the lifespan of women to improve cardiovascular disease prevention. Am J Prev Cardiol. 2020;2:100028.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Ridker PM, Buring JE, Rifai N, Cook NR. Development and validation of improved algorithms for the assessment of global cardiovascular risk in women: the Reynolds Risk Score. JAMA. 2007;297:611–9.PubMedCrossRef Ridker PM, Buring JE, Rifai N, Cook NR. Development and validation of improved algorithms for the assessment of global cardiovascular risk in women: the Reynolds Risk Score. JAMA. 2007;297:611–9.PubMedCrossRef
124.
Zurück zum Zitat McSweeney JC, Rosenfeld AG, Abel WM, et al. Preventing and Experiencing ischemic heart disease as a woman: state of the science: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:1302–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef McSweeney JC, Rosenfeld AG, Abel WM, et al. Preventing and Experiencing ischemic heart disease as a woman: state of the science: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016;133:1302–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Michos ED, Nasir K, Braunstein JB, et al. Framingham risk equation underestimates subclinical atherosclerosis risk in asymptomatic women. Atherosclerosis. 2006;184:201–6.PubMedCrossRef Michos ED, Nasir K, Braunstein JB, et al. Framingham risk equation underestimates subclinical atherosclerosis risk in asymptomatic women. Atherosclerosis. 2006;184:201–6.PubMedCrossRef
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. The distribution of 10-Year risk for coronary heart disease among US adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1791–6.PubMedCrossRef Ford ES, Giles WH, Mokdad AH. The distribution of 10-Year risk for coronary heart disease among US adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43:1791–6.PubMedCrossRef
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Cook NR, Paynter NP, Eaton CB, et al. Comparison of the Framingham and Reynolds Risk scores for global cardiovascular risk prediction in the multiethnic Women’s Health Initiative. Circulation. 2012;125(1748–56):S1-11. Cook NR, Paynter NP, Eaton CB, et al. Comparison of the Framingham and Reynolds Risk scores for global cardiovascular risk prediction in the multiethnic Women’s Health Initiative. Circulation. 2012;125(1748–56):S1-11.
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Kavousi M, Leening MJ, Nanchen D, et al. Comparison of application of the ACC/AHA guidelines, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and European Society of Cardiology guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in a European cohort. JAMA. 2014;311:1416–23.PubMedCrossRef Kavousi M, Leening MJ, Nanchen D, et al. Comparison of application of the ACC/AHA guidelines, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and European Society of Cardiology guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in a European cohort. JAMA. 2014;311:1416–23.PubMedCrossRef
129.
Zurück zum Zitat DeFilippis AP, Young R, McEvoy JW, et al. Risk score overestimation: the impact of individual cardiovascular risk factors and preventive therapies on the performance of the American Heart Association-American College of Cardiology-Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease risk score in a modern multi-ethnic cohort. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:598–608.PubMed DeFilippis AP, Young R, McEvoy JW, et al. Risk score overestimation: the impact of individual cardiovascular risk factors and preventive therapies on the performance of the American Heart Association-American College of Cardiology-Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease risk score in a modern multi-ethnic cohort. Eur Heart J. 2017;38:598–608.PubMed
130.
Zurück zum Zitat Rana JS, Tabada GH, Solomon MD, et al. Accuracy of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk equation in a large contemporary, multiethnic population. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:2118–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Rana JS, Tabada GH, Solomon MD, et al. Accuracy of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk equation in a large contemporary, multiethnic population. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67:2118–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
131.
Zurück zum Zitat Pylypchuk R, Wells S, Kerr A, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction equations in 400 000 primary care patients in New Zealand: a derivation and validation study. Lancet. 2018;391:1897–907.PubMedCrossRef Pylypchuk R, Wells S, Kerr A, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction equations in 400 000 primary care patients in New Zealand: a derivation and validation study. Lancet. 2018;391:1897–907.PubMedCrossRef
132.
Zurück zum Zitat Muntner P, Colantonio LD, Cushman M, et al. Validation of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort risk equations. JAMA. 2014;311:1406–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Muntner P, Colantonio LD, Cushman M, et al. Validation of the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort risk equations. JAMA. 2014;311:1406–15.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
133.
Zurück zum Zitat Mora S, Wenger NK, Cook NR, et al. Evaluation of the pooled cohort risk equations for cardiovascular risk prediction in a multiethnic cohort from the women’s health initiative. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178:1231–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mora S, Wenger NK, Cook NR, et al. Evaluation of the pooled cohort risk equations for cardiovascular risk prediction in a multiethnic cohort from the women’s health initiative. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178:1231–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
134.
Zurück zum Zitat Pennells L, Kaptoge S, Wood A, et al. Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:621–31.PubMedCrossRef Pennells L, Kaptoge S, Wood A, et al. Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:621–31.PubMedCrossRef
135.
Zurück zum Zitat Stuart JJ, Tanz LJ, Cook NR, et al. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and 10-year cardiovascular risk prediction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72:1252–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Stuart JJ, Tanz LJ, Cook NR, et al. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and 10-year cardiovascular risk prediction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72:1252–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
136.
Zurück zum Zitat Timpka S, Fraser A, Schyman T, et al. The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018;33:1003–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Timpka S, Fraser A, Schyman T, et al. The value of pregnancy complication history for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk prediction in middle-aged women. Eur J Epidemiol. 2018;33:1003–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
137.
Zurück zum Zitat Markovitz AR, Stuart JJ, Horn J, et al. Does pregnancy complication history improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction? Findings from the HUNT study in Norway. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:1113–20.PubMedCrossRef Markovitz AR, Stuart JJ, Horn J, et al. Does pregnancy complication history improve cardiovascular disease risk prediction? Findings from the HUNT study in Norway. Eur Heart J. 2019;40:1113–20.PubMedCrossRef
138.
Zurück zum Zitat Cho L, Davis M, Elgendy I, et al. Summary of updated recommendations for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women: JACC state-of-the-art review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75:2602–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cho L, Davis M, Elgendy I, et al. Summary of updated recommendations for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women: JACC state-of-the-art review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020;75:2602–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
139.
Zurück zum Zitat Lakoski SG, Greenland P, Wong ND, et al. Coronary artery calcium scores and risk for cardiovascular events in women classified as “low risk” based on Framingham risk score: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2437–42.PubMedCrossRef Lakoski SG, Greenland P, Wong ND, et al. Coronary artery calcium scores and risk for cardiovascular events in women classified as “low risk” based on Framingham risk score: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2437–42.PubMedCrossRef
140.
Zurück zum Zitat Kavousi M, Desai CS, Ayers C, et al. Prevalence and prognostic implications of coronary artery calcification in low-risk women: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016;316:2126–34.PubMedCrossRef Kavousi M, Desai CS, Ayers C, et al. Prevalence and prognostic implications of coronary artery calcification in low-risk women: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016;316:2126–34.PubMedCrossRef
141.
Zurück zum Zitat Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;140:e596–646.PubMedPubMedCentral Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;140:e596–646.PubMedPubMedCentral
142.
Zurück zum Zitat Piepoli MF, Abreu A, Albus C, et al. Update on cardiovascular prevention in clinical practice: a position paper of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020;27:181–205.PubMedCrossRef Piepoli MF, Abreu A, Albus C, et al. Update on cardiovascular prevention in clinical practice: a position paper of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2020;27:181–205.PubMedCrossRef
143.
Zurück zum Zitat Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2020;41:111–88.PubMedCrossRef Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J. 2020;41:111–88.PubMedCrossRef
144.
Zurück zum Zitat Pearson GJ, Thompson SG, Anderson T et al. 2021 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult. Can J Cardiol. 2021;S0828-282X:00165-3. Pearson GJ, Thompson SG, Anderson T et al. 2021 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult. Can J Cardiol. 2021;S0828-282X:00165-3.
145.
Zurück zum Zitat Sever PS, Dahlöf B, Poulter NR, et al. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:1149–58.PubMedCrossRef Sever PS, Dahlöf B, Poulter NR, et al. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:1149–58.PubMedCrossRef
146.
Zurück zum Zitat Nakamura H, Arakawa K, Itakura H, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with pravastatin in Japan (MEGA Study): a prospective randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;368:1155–63.PubMedCrossRef Nakamura H, Arakawa K, Itakura H, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with pravastatin in Japan (MEGA Study): a prospective randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006;368:1155–63.PubMedCrossRef
147.
Zurück zum Zitat Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1001–9.PubMedCrossRef Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1001–9.PubMedCrossRef
148.
Zurück zum Zitat LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Waters DD, et al. Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1425–35.PubMedCrossRef LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Waters DD, et al. Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1425–35.PubMedCrossRef
149.
Zurück zum Zitat Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A 3rd, et al. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:549–59.PubMedCrossRef Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A 3rd, et al. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:549–59.PubMedCrossRef
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, et al. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:1623–30.PubMedCrossRef Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB, et al. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:1623–30.PubMedCrossRef
151.
Zurück zum Zitat Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleigh P, Peto R. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:2005–16.PubMedCrossRef Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleigh P, Peto R. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:2005–16.PubMedCrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Challenges in Optimizing Lipid Management in Women
verfasst von
Kellsey A. Peterson
Gurleen Kaur
Eugenia Gianos
Sulagna Mookherjee
Kim A. Poli
Mandeep S. Sidhu
Radmila Lyubarova
Publikationsdatum
18.10.2021
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy / Ausgabe 6/2022
Print ISSN: 0920-3206
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-7241
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10557-021-07273-0

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 6/2022

Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 6/2022 Zur Ausgabe

So beeinflussen Herzinfarkte auf lange Sicht die Sterblichkeit

20.06.2024 ST-Hebungsinfarkt Nachrichten

Wie hoch ist bei Patienten, die nach einem ST-Hebungs-Myokardinfarkt die initiale Hochrisikophase überleben, auf lange Sicht das Sterberisiko? Eine Studie aus Dänemark liefert dazu nun aufschlussreiche Daten.

Protonenpumpenhemmer stoppt Arrhythmie

20.06.2024 Protonenpumpenhemmstoffe Nachrichten

Wenn Nervenfasern aus dem Magen und dem Herzen im Gehirn dicht beieinander liegen, kann auch mal etwas schiefgehen: So lässt sich erklären, weshalb Schmerzen durch einen Magentumor bei einem Mann eine ventrikuläre Extrasystolie auslösen – und PPI diese beenden.

Ob Apixaban nützt oder schadet, entscheidet der CHA2DS2-VASc-Score

20.06.2024 Therapie des Vorhofflimmerns Nachrichten

Patienten mit subklinischem Vorhofflimmern tragen ein erhöhtes Risiko für Schlaganfälle. Da stellt sich die Frage nach einer medikamentösen Antikoagulation. Offenbar hängt es aber vom CHA2DS2-VASc-Score ab, ob die Gabe von Apixaban von Vorteil ist.

Wie SGLT2-Hemmer es schaffen, die Mortalität zu reduzieren

20.06.2024 Kardiologische Therapie Nachrichten

SGLT2-Hemmer verhindern keine Herzinfarkte oder Schlaganfälle. Aber sie reduzieren die kardiovaskuläre Mortalität bei einem breiten Spektrum von Patienten. Wie sie das schaffen, verdeutlicht eine Metaanalyse von Daten aus elf randomisierten Studien.

Update Kardiologie

Bestellen Sie unseren Fach-Newsletter und bleiben Sie gut informiert.