MicroRNA-7a-5p (miR-7a-5p) is closely related to apoptosis and plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Whether miR-7a-5p is involved in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is unknown. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the role of miR-7a-5p in cardiomyocyte H9C2 cells in response to H/R stimulation. The results of RT-qPCR demonstrated that the expression level of miR-7a-5p was significantly down-regulated in H/R-treated H9C2 cells. MTT assay revealed that the cell viability was notably decreased in H/R group. Flow cytometric analysis found that the ratio of apoptotic cells was increased markedly following H/R. Enforced miR-7a-5p expression increased cell viability and decreased the apoptotic rate. Western blot analysis revealed that the expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins cleaved caspase-3 and Bax were down-regulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated in H/R-treated H9C2 cells transfected with miR-7a-5p mimic. On the contrary, miR-7a-5p downexpressing promoted apoptosis in H/R-treated H9C2 cells. Furthermore, the bioinformatics prediction manifested voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was a potential target for miR-7a-5p, and dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-7a-5p targeted VDAC1 3′ untranslated regions, which leads to the repressed expressions of VDAC1 mRNA and protein. Knockdown of VDAC1 potentiated the protective effects of miR-7a-5p against H/R-induced cell injury. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that miR-7a-5p is involved in H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through targeting VDAC1. MiR-7a-5p/VDAC1 axis might be utilized as hopeful biomarkers to reveal the potential mechanism of myocardial I/R injury.