Skip to main content

11.11.2022 | Review Article

Update of pediatric bone tumors—notochordal tumors, chondrogenic tumors, and vascular tumors of the bone

verfasst von: Hyojeong Lee, Annie Wang, Ryan Cheng, Jay Moran, Khalid Al-Dasuqi, Lina Irshaid, Ezekiel Maloney, Jack Porrino

Erschienen in: Skeletal Radiology

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Abstract

There are numerous bone tumors in the pediatric population, with imaging playing an essential role in diagnosis and management. Our understanding of certain bone tumors has rapidly evolved over the past decade with advancements in next-generation genetic sequencing techniques. This increased level of understanding has altered the nomenclature, management approach, and prognosis of certain lesions. We provide a detailed update of bone tumors that occur in the pediatric population with emphasis on the recently released nomenclature provided in the 5th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours. In the current manuscript, we address notochordal tumors, chondrogenic tumors, and vascular tumors of the bone.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Suster D, Suster S. Genetic characteristics and molecular diagnostics of bone tumors. Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment. 2021;7. Suster D, Suster S. Genetic characteristics and molecular diagnostics of bone tumors. Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment. 2021;7.
2.
Zurück zum Zitat WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board. WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board: soft tissue and bone tumours. 5th ed. Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020. WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board. WHO Classification of Tumours Editorial Board: soft tissue and bone tumours. 5th ed. Lyon (France): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2020.
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Choi JH, Ro JY. The 2020 WHO classification of tumors of bone: an updated review. Adv Anat Pathol. 2021;28:119–38. PubMedCrossRef Choi JH, Ro JY. The 2020 WHO classification of tumors of bone: an updated review. Adv Anat Pathol. 2021;28:119–38. PubMedCrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Anderson WJ, Doyle LA. Updates from the 2020 World Health Organization Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours. Histopathology. 2021;78:644–57. PubMedCrossRef Anderson WJ, Doyle LA. Updates from the 2020 World Health Organization Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours. Histopathology. 2021;78:644–57. PubMedCrossRef
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Mukherjee D, Chaichana KL, Gokaslan ZL, Aaronson O, Cheng JS, McGirt MJ. Survival of patients with malignant primary osseous spinal neoplasms: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1973 to 2003. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:143–50. PubMedCrossRef Mukherjee D, Chaichana KL, Gokaslan ZL, Aaronson O, Cheng JS, McGirt MJ. Survival of patients with malignant primary osseous spinal neoplasms: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1973 to 2003. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:143–50. PubMedCrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Righi A, Sbaraglia M, Gambarotti M, Cocchi S, Drago G, Casadei R, et al. Extra-axial chordoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of six cases. Virchows Arch. 2018;472:1015–20. PubMedCrossRef Righi A, Sbaraglia M, Gambarotti M, Cocchi S, Drago G, Casadei R, et al. Extra-axial chordoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of six cases. Virchows Arch. 2018;472:1015–20. PubMedCrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Hung YP, Diaz-Perez JA, Cote GM, Wejde J, Schwab JH, Nardi V, et al. Dedifferentiated chordoma: clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics with integrative analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2020;44:1213–23. PubMedCrossRef Hung YP, Diaz-Perez JA, Cote GM, Wejde J, Schwab JH, Nardi V, et al. Dedifferentiated chordoma: clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics with integrative analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2020;44:1213–23. PubMedCrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Pillay N, Plagnol V, Tarpey PS, Lobo SB, Presneau N, Szuhai K, et al. A common single-nucleotide variant in T is strongly associated with chordoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1185–7. PubMedCrossRef Pillay N, Plagnol V, Tarpey PS, Lobo SB, Presneau N, Szuhai K, et al. A common single-nucleotide variant in T is strongly associated with chordoma. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1185–7. PubMedCrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Shalaby A, Presneau N, Ye H, Halai D, Berisha F, Idowu B, et al. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in chordoma pathogenesis: a potential therapeutic target. J Pathol. 2011;223:336–46. PubMedCrossRef Shalaby A, Presneau N, Ye H, Halai D, Berisha F, Idowu B, et al. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in chordoma pathogenesis: a potential therapeutic target. J Pathol. 2011;223:336–46. PubMedCrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Murphey MD, Andrews CL, Flemming DJ, Temple HT, Smith WS, Smirniotopoulos JG. From the archives of the AFIP Primary tumors of the spine: radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1996;16:1131–58. PubMedCrossRef Murphey MD, Andrews CL, Flemming DJ, Temple HT, Smith WS, Smirniotopoulos JG. From the archives of the AFIP Primary tumors of the spine: radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1996;16:1131–58. PubMedCrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Nielsen GP. Bone tumor pathology, an issue of surgical pathology. First: Elsevier; 2021. Nielsen GP. Bone tumor pathology, an issue of surgical pathology. First: Elsevier; 2021.
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Rosenberg AE, Brown GA, Bhan AK, Lee JM. Chondroid chordoma--a variant of chordoma. A morphologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1994;101:36–41. Rosenberg AE, Brown GA, Bhan AK, Lee JM. Chondroid chordoma--a variant of chordoma. A morphologic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Clin Pathol. 1994;101:36–41.
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Park S-A, Kim HS. F-18 FDG PET/CT evaluation of sacrococcygeal chordoma. Clin Nucl Med. 2008;33:906–8. PubMedCrossRef Park S-A, Kim HS. F-18 FDG PET/CT evaluation of sacrococcygeal chordoma. Clin Nucl Med. 2008;33:906–8. PubMedCrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Bergh P, Kindblom LG, Gunterberg B, Remotti F, Ryd W, Meis-Kindblom JM. Prognostic factors in chordoma of the sacrum and mobile spine: a study of 39 patients. Cancer. 2000;88:2122–34. PubMedCrossRef Bergh P, Kindblom LG, Gunterberg B, Remotti F, Ryd W, Meis-Kindblom JM. Prognostic factors in chordoma of the sacrum and mobile spine: a study of 39 patients. Cancer. 2000;88:2122–34. PubMedCrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Frezza AM, Botta L, Trama A, Dei Tos AP, Stacchiotti S. Chordoma: update on disease, epidemiology, biology and medical therapies. Curr Opin Oncol. 2019;31:114–20. PubMedCrossRef Frezza AM, Botta L, Trama A, Dei Tos AP, Stacchiotti S. Chordoma: update on disease, epidemiology, biology and medical therapies. Curr Opin Oncol. 2019;31:114–20. PubMedCrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Radaelli S, Stacchiotti S, Ruggieri P, Donati D, Casali PG, Palmerini E, et al. 2016 Sacral chordoma: long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated at two reference centers. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 41:1049–57 Radaelli S, Stacchiotti S, Ruggieri P, Donati D, Casali PG, Palmerini E, et al. 2016 Sacral chordoma: long-term outcome of a large series of patients surgically treated at two reference centers. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 41:1049–57
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Radaelli S, Fossati P, Stacchiotti S, Akiyama T, Asencio JM, Bandiera S, et al. The sacral chordoma margin. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020;46:1415–22. PubMedCrossRef Radaelli S, Fossati P, Stacchiotti S, Akiyama T, Asencio JM, Bandiera S, et al. The sacral chordoma margin. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020;46:1415–22. PubMedCrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Hanna SA, Tirabosco R, Amin A, Pollock RC, Skinner JA, Cannon SR, et al. Dedifferentiated chordoma: a report of four cases arising “de novo.” J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90:652–6. PubMedCrossRef Hanna SA, Tirabosco R, Amin A, Pollock RC, Skinner JA, Cannon SR, et al. Dedifferentiated chordoma: a report of four cases arising “de novo.” J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90:652–6. PubMedCrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Kato S, Gasbarrini A, Ghermandi R, Gambarotti M, Bandiera S. Spinal chordomas dedifferentiated to osteosarcoma: a report of two cases and a literature review. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(Suppl 1):251–6. PubMedCrossRef Kato S, Gasbarrini A, Ghermandi R, Gambarotti M, Bandiera S. Spinal chordomas dedifferentiated to osteosarcoma: a report of two cases and a literature review. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(Suppl 1):251–6. PubMedCrossRef
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Shih AR, Cote GM, Chebib I, Choy E, DeLaney T, Deshpande V, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics of poorly differentiated chordoma. Mod Pathol. 2018;31:1237–45. PubMedCrossRef Shih AR, Cote GM, Chebib I, Choy E, DeLaney T, Deshpande V, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics of poorly differentiated chordoma. Mod Pathol. 2018;31:1237–45. PubMedCrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Owosho AA, Zhang L, Rosenblum MK, Antonescu CR. High sensitivity of FISH analysis in detecting homozygous SMARCB1 deletions in poorly differentiated chordoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of nine cases. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018;57:89–95. PubMedCrossRef Owosho AA, Zhang L, Rosenblum MK, Antonescu CR. High sensitivity of FISH analysis in detecting homozygous SMARCB1 deletions in poorly differentiated chordoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of nine cases. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018;57:89–95. PubMedCrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Huang S-C, Zhang L, Sung Y-S, Chen C-L, Kao Y-C, Agaram NP, et al. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016;55:767–76. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Huang S-C, Zhang L, Sung Y-S, Chen C-L, Kao Y-C, Agaram NP, et al. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016;55:767–76. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Yeom KW, Lober RM, Mobley BC, Harsh G, Vogel H, Allagio R, et al. Diffusion-weighted MRI: distinction of skull base chordoma from chondrosarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(1056–61):S1. Yeom KW, Lober RM, Mobley BC, Harsh G, Vogel H, Allagio R, et al. Diffusion-weighted MRI: distinction of skull base chordoma from chondrosarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(1056–61):S1.
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Hasselblatt M, Thomas C, Hovestadt V, Schrimpf D, Johann P, Bens S, et al. Poorly differentiated chordoma with SMARCB1/INI1 loss: a distinct molecular entity with dismal prognosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132:149–51. PubMedCrossRef Hasselblatt M, Thomas C, Hovestadt V, Schrimpf D, Johann P, Bens S, et al. Poorly differentiated chordoma with SMARCB1/INI1 loss: a distinct molecular entity with dismal prognosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2016;132:149–51. PubMedCrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Afonso PD, Isaac A, Villagrán JM. Chondroid tumors as incidental findings and differential diagnosis between enchondromas and low-grade chondrosarcomas. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2019;23:3–18. PubMedCrossRef Afonso PD, Isaac A, Villagrán JM. Chondroid tumors as incidental findings and differential diagnosis between enchondromas and low-grade chondrosarcomas. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2019;23:3–18. PubMedCrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Al-Qassab S, Lalam R, Botchu R, Bazzocchi A. Imaging of pediatric bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2021;25:57–67. PubMedCrossRef Al-Qassab S, Lalam R, Botchu R, Bazzocchi A. Imaging of pediatric bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2021;25:57–67. PubMedCrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Engel H, Herget GW, Füllgraf H, Sutter R, Benndorf M, Bamberg F, et al. Chondrogenic bone tumors: the importance of imaging characteristics. Rofo. 2021;193:262–75. PubMedCrossRef Engel H, Herget GW, Füllgraf H, Sutter R, Benndorf M, Bamberg F, et al. Chondrogenic bone tumors: the importance of imaging characteristics. Rofo. 2021;193:262–75. PubMedCrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Bierry G, Kerr DA, Nielsen GP, Rosenberg AE, Huang AJ, Torriani M, et al. Enchondromas in children: imaging appearance with pathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1223–9. PubMedCrossRef Bierry G, Kerr DA, Nielsen GP, Rosenberg AE, Huang AJ, Torriani M, et al. Enchondromas in children: imaging appearance with pathological correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1223–9. PubMedCrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Swenson D, Walters M. Pediatric radiology: the requisites. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2017. Swenson D, Walters M. Pediatric radiology: the requisites. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2017.
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerr DA, Cipriani NA. Benign cartilage-forming tumors Surg Pathol Clin. 2021;14:585–603. PubMed Kerr DA, Cipriani NA. Benign cartilage-forming tumors Surg Pathol Clin. 2021;14:585–603. PubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat de Andrea CE, San-Julian M, Bovée JVMG. Integrating morphology and genetics in the diagnosis of cartilage tumors. Surg Pathol Clin. 2017;10:537–52. PubMedCrossRef de Andrea CE, San-Julian M, Bovée JVMG. Integrating morphology and genetics in the diagnosis of cartilage tumors. Surg Pathol Clin. 2017;10:537–52. PubMedCrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Verdegaal SHM, Bovée JVMG, Pansuriya TC, Grimer RJ, Ozger H, Jutte PC, et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of chondrosarcoma in patients with Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome: an international multicenter study of 161 patients. Oncologist. 2011;16:1771–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Verdegaal SHM, Bovée JVMG, Pansuriya TC, Grimer RJ, Ozger H, Jutte PC, et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognosis of chondrosarcoma in patients with Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome: an international multicenter study of 161 patients. Oncologist. 2011;16:1771–9. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Ozonoff MB. Pediatric orthopedic radiology. Subsequent. W B Saunders Co; 1992. Ozonoff MB. Pediatric orthopedic radiology. Subsequent. W B Saunders Co; 1992.
35.
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Miller SF. Imaging features of juxtacortical chondroma in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44:56–63. PubMedCrossRef Miller SF. Imaging features of juxtacortical chondroma in children. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44:56–63. PubMedCrossRef
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Lorente Moltó F, Bonete Lluch DJ, Martí PV. Childhood periosteal chondroma. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120:605–8. PubMedCrossRef Lorente Moltó F, Bonete Lluch DJ, Martí PV. Childhood periosteal chondroma. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120:605–8. PubMedCrossRef
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Douis H, Saifuddin A. The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I Benign lesions Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1195–212. PubMedCrossRef Douis H, Saifuddin A. The imaging of cartilaginous bone tumours. I Benign lesions Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1195–212. PubMedCrossRef
39.
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Schuppers HA, van der Eijken JW. Chondroblastoma during the growing age. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1998;7:293–7. PubMedCrossRef Schuppers HA, van der Eijken JW. Chondroblastoma during the growing age. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1998;7:293–7. PubMedCrossRef
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Kadom N, Rushing EJ, Yaun A, Santi M. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:53–6. PubMedCrossRef Kadom N, Rushing EJ, Yaun A, Santi M. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone in a teenager. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39:53–6. PubMedCrossRef
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Cappelle S, Pans S, Sciot R. Imaging features of chondromyxoid fibroma: report of 15 cases and literature review. Br J Radiol. 2016;89:20160088. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Cappelle S, Pans S, Sciot R. Imaging features of chondromyxoid fibroma: report of 15 cases and literature review. Br J Radiol. 2016;89:20160088. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
43.
Zurück zum Zitat HemanthaKumar G, Sathish M. Diagnosis and literature review of chondromyxoid fibroma - a pathological puzzle. J Orthop Case Rep. 2019;9:101–5. PubMedPubMedCentral HemanthaKumar G, Sathish M. Diagnosis and literature review of chondromyxoid fibroma - a pathological puzzle. J Orthop Case Rep. 2019;9:101–5. PubMedPubMedCentral
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Andreacchio A, Alberghina F, Giacometti V, Marengo L, Canavese F. Single-stage surgery using calcium sulfate pellets in association with tumor resection as treatment for intraosseous hemangioma of the radius shaft in a 2-year-old boy. J Hand Microsurg. 2017;9:154–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Andreacchio A, Alberghina F, Giacometti V, Marengo L, Canavese F. Single-stage surgery using calcium sulfate pellets in association with tumor resection as treatment for intraosseous hemangioma of the radius shaft in a 2-year-old boy. J Hand Microsurg. 2017;9:154–8. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
47.
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Friedman DP. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: MR findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:359–64. PubMedCrossRef Friedman DP. Symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas: MR findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:359–64. PubMedCrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Wold LE, Swee RG, Sim FH. Vascular lesions of bone. Pathol Annu. 1985;20(Pt 2):101–37. PubMed Wold LE, Swee RG, Sim FH. Vascular lesions of bone. Pathol Annu. 1985;20(Pt 2):101–37. PubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Modic MT, Carter JR, Mapstone T, Dengel FH. Vertebral hemangiomas: MR imaging. Radiology. 1987;165:165–9. PubMedCrossRef Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Modic MT, Carter JR, Mapstone T, Dengel FH. Vertebral hemangiomas: MR imaging. Radiology. 1987;165:165–9. PubMedCrossRef
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Murphey MD, Fairbairn KJ, Parman LM, Baxter KG, Parsa MB, Smith WS. From the archives of the AFIP. Musculoskeletal angiomatous lesions: radiologic-pathologic correlation Radiographics. 1995;15:893–917. PubMed Murphey MD, Fairbairn KJ, Parman LM, Baxter KG, Parsa MB, Smith WS. From the archives of the AFIP. Musculoskeletal angiomatous lesions: radiologic-pathologic correlation Radiographics. 1995;15:893–917. PubMed
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Xu Y, Chen W, Cheng H, Lin Z. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the bone: a case report with findings of bone scintigraphy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98:e15546. CrossRef Xu Y, Chen W, Cheng H, Lin Z. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the bone: a case report with findings of bone scintigraphy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98:e15546. CrossRef
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Stacchiotti S, Miah AB, Frezza AM, Messiou C, Morosi C, Caraceni A, et al. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, an ultra-rare cancer: a consensus paper from the community of experts. ESMO Open. 2021;6:100170. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Stacchiotti S, Miah AB, Frezza AM, Messiou C, Morosi C, Caraceni A, et al. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, an ultra-rare cancer: a consensus paper from the community of experts. ESMO Open. 2021;6:100170. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Gusho CA, Tepper SC, Gitelis S, Blank AT. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone: a survival analysis of 50 cases from the SEER database (1992–2016). Rare Tumors. 2021;13:20363613211005590. CrossRef Gusho CA, Tepper SC, Gitelis S, Blank AT. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone: a survival analysis of 50 cases from the SEER database (1992–2016). Rare Tumors. 2021;13:20363613211005590. CrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Lau K, Massad M, Pollak C, Rubin C, Yeh J, Wang J, et al. Clinical patterns and outcome in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with or without pulmonary involvement: insights from an internet registry in the study of a rare cancer. Chest. 2011;140:1312–8. PubMedCrossRef Lau K, Massad M, Pollak C, Rubin C, Yeh J, Wang J, et al. Clinical patterns and outcome in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with or without pulmonary involvement: insights from an internet registry in the study of a rare cancer. Chest. 2011;140:1312–8. PubMedCrossRef
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Guo Q, Xue J, Xu L, Shi Z, Zhou B. The clinical features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in a Han Chinese population: a retrospective analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7345. CrossRef Guo Q, Xue J, Xu L, Shi Z, Zhou B. The clinical features of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma in a Han Chinese population: a retrospective analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7345. CrossRef
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Shiba S, Imaoka H, Shioji K, Suzuki E, Horiguchi S, Terashima T, et al. Clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a multicenter retrospective study. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:993. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Shiba S, Imaoka H, Shioji K, Suzuki E, Horiguchi S, Terashima T, et al. Clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma: a multicenter retrospective study. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:993. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Epelboym Y, Engelkemier DR, Thomas-Chausse F, Alomari AI, Al-Ibraheemi A, Trenor CC, et al. Imaging findings in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Clin Imaging. 2019;58:59–65. PubMedCrossRef Epelboym Y, Engelkemier DR, Thomas-Chausse F, Alomari AI, Al-Ibraheemi A, Trenor CC, et al. Imaging findings in epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Clin Imaging. 2019;58:59–65. PubMedCrossRef
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Errani C, Vanel D, Gambarotti M, Alberghini M, Picci P, Faldini C. Vascular bone tumors: a proposal of a classification based on clinicopathological, radiographic and genetic features. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1495–507. PubMedCrossRef Errani C, Vanel D, Gambarotti M, Alberghini M, Picci P, Faldini C. Vascular bone tumors: a proposal of a classification based on clinicopathological, radiographic and genetic features. Skeletal Radiol. 2012;41:1495–507. PubMedCrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Update of pediatric bone tumors—notochordal tumors, chondrogenic tumors, and vascular tumors of the bone
verfasst von
Hyojeong Lee
Annie Wang
Ryan Cheng
Jay Moran
Khalid Al-Dasuqi
Lina Irshaid
Ezekiel Maloney
Jack Porrino
Publikationsdatum
11.11.2022
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Skeletal Radiology
Print ISSN: 0364-2348
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-2161
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00256-022-04235-x

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Radiologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.