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01.12.2018 | Short report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Implementation Science 1/2018

Assessing the reliability and validity of the Danish version of Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC)

Implementation Science > Ausgabe 1/2018
Marie Höjriis Storkholm, Pamela Mazzocato, Mesfin Kassaye Tessma, Carl Savage
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13012-018-0769-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Organizational change initiatives in health care frequently achieve only partial implementation success. Understanding an organizational readiness for change (ORC) may be a way to develop more effective and efficient change strategies. Denmark, like many countries, has begun a major system-wide structural reform which involves considerable changes in service delivery. Due to the lack of a validated Danish instrument, we aimed to translate and validate a Danish version of the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC) questionnaire. It measures if organizational members are confident in their collective commitment towards and ability (efficacy) to implement organizational change. ORIC is concise, grounded in theory, and designed, but not yet validated among employees in a real hospital setting.


The 12-item ORIC instrument was translated into Danish and back-translated to English. Employees (N = 284) at a hospital department facing a major organizational change in the Central Denmark Region completed the questionnaire. Face and content validity was ascertained. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess construct validity. Reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Item response theory (Rasch analysis) was used to determine item and person reliability.


Response rate was 72%. A two factor (commitment and efficacy), 11-item scale, of the Danish language ORIC was shown to be valid (CFI = .95, RMSEA = .067, and CMNI/DF = 2.32) and reliable (Cronbach’s alpha 0.88) in a health care setting. Item response analysis confirmed acceptable person and item separation reliability.


Our version of ORIC showed acceptable validity and reliability as an instrument for measuring readiness for implementing organizational change in a Danish-speaking health care population. For health care managers interested in evaluating their organizations and tailor change strategies, ORIC’s brevity and theoretical underpinnings could make it an appealing and feasible tool to develop more successful change efforts.
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