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01.12.2012 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

BMC Health Services Research 1/2012

Brain Gains: a literature review of medical missions to low and middle-income countries

Zeitschrift:
BMC Health Services Research > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Alexandra LC Martiniuk, Mitra Manouchehrian, Joel A Negin, Anthony B Zwi
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1472-6963-12-134) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AM conceived of the study idea, reviewed articles, reviewed drafts of the manuscript and prepared the final manuscript. MM conducted the literature search, applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data from articles and drafted initial manuscript. JN reviewed articles, and reviewed and approved the final draft of the manuscript. AZ reviewed drafts of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Healthcare professionals’ participation in short-term medical missions to low and middle income countries (LMIC) to provide healthcare has become common over the past 50 years yet little is known about the quantity and quality of these missions. The aim of this study was to review medical mission publications over 25 years to better understand missions and their potential impact on health systems in LMICs.

Methods

A literature review was conducted by searching Medline for articles published from 1985–2009 about medical missions to LMICs, revealing 2512 publications. Exclusion criteria such as receiving country and mission length were applied, leaving 230 relevant articles. A data extraction sheet was used to collect information, including sending/receiving countries and funding source.

Results

The majority of articles were descriptive and lacked contextual or theoretical analysis. Most missions were short-term (1 day – 1 month). The most common sending countries were the U.S. and Canada. The top destination country was Honduras, while regionally Africa received the highest number of missions. Health care professionals typically responded to presenting health needs, ranging from primary care to surgical relief. Cleft lip/palate surgeries were the next most common type of care provided.

Conclusions

Based on the articles reviewed, there is significant scope for improvement in mission planning, monitoring and evaluation as well as global and/or national policies regarding foreign medical missions. To promote optimum performance by mission staff, training in such areas as cross-cultural communication and contextual realities of mission sites should be provided. With the large number of missions conducted worldwide, efforts to ensure efficacy, harmonisation with existing government programming and transparency are needed.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Detailed Methods of Literature Review addressing each of the PRISMA Guidelines. (DOCX 101 KB)
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Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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