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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-185) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
FFC contributed to acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis and draft the manuscript; JOB, NB, DSD, ICS and CM contributed to acquisition and analysis of data; SFL contributed to analysis and interpretation of data and draft the manuscript; MCI contributed to conception and design of the work and draft the manuscript; KDA contributed to conception and design of the work, analysis and interpretation of data, statistical analysis and draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by the association of 3 or more risk factors, including: abdominal obesity associated with an excess of abdominal fat, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Moreover, the prevalence of hypertension and metabolic dysfunctions sharply increases after the menopause. However, the mechanisms involved in these changes are not well understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose overload on cardiovascular autonomic modulation, inflammation and cardiac oxidative stress in an experimental model of hypertension and menopause.
Female SHR rats were divided into (n = 8/group): hypertensive (H), hypertensive ovariectomized (HO) and hypertensive ovariectomized undergoing fructose overload (100 g/L in drinking water) (FHO). Arterial pressure (AP) signals were directly recorded. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis. Oxidative stress was evaluated in cardiac tissue.
AP was higher in the FHO group when compared to the other groups. Fructose overload promoted an increase in body and fat weight, triglyceride concentration and a reduction in insulin sensitivity. IL-10 was reduced in the FHO group when compared to the H group. TNF-α was higher in the FHO when compared to all other groups. Lipoperoxidation was higher and glutathione redox balance was reduced in the FHO group when compared to other groups, an indication of increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between IL-10 and adipose tissue.
Fructose overload promoted an impairment in cardiac autonomic modulation associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats undergoing ovarian hormone deprivation.