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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2012

Change in health status (EQ-5D) over 5 years among individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus in the SHIELD longitudinal study

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2012
Susan Grandy, Kathleen M Fox, the SHIELD Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

This research was funded by AstraZeneca LP. SG is an employee and stock holder of AstraZeneca LP. KMF received research funds from AstraZeneca LP.

Authors’ contributions

SG provided substantial contribution to the conception and design of the study and interpretation of the data, reviewed and revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, and approved the final version of the manuscript. KMF provided substantial contribution to the design of the analysis, oversaw the analysis, provided the data interpretation, wrote the manuscript, and approved the final version of the manuscript.



Health-related quality of life studies among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, using the EQ-5D, have been short term and have not assessed change over years. This study assessed the change in health status and health-related quality of life over 5 years among individuals with and without diabetes.


Respondents to the US S tudy to H elp I mprove E arly evaluation and management of risk factors L eading to D iabetes (SHIELD) completed the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) at baseline (2004) and 5 years later (2009). Visual analog scale (VAS) score and health index score were computed at baseline and year 5, and the change over 5 years was measured for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and those without diabetes, and T2DM adults with and without diabetic complications. Linear regression models were used to determine change in EQ-5D score, controlling for age, gender, race, education, household income, and body mass index (BMI).


There was significantly greater decline in the EQ-5D index score in the T2DM group (-0.031 [SD 0.158]), compared with those without diabetes (-0.016 [0.141], p = 0.001). Compared with respondents without diabetes, those with T2DM had a larger reduction in EQ-5D index score, after controlling for demographics (p = 0.001). EQ-5D VAS score declined over 5 years for both groups: -1.42 (18.1) for the T2DM group, and -0.63 (15.8) for the group without diabetes, but the between-group difference was not significant either before (p = 0.09) or after (p = 0.12), controlling for demographics. T2DM respondents with diabetic complications had a greater decline in EQ-5D scores than T2DM respondents without complications (p < 0.05).


Over a 5-year period, health status of respondents with T2DM declined significantly compared with those with no diabetes, indicating that the burden of the disease has a long-term detrimental impact. This decline in health status is likely to impact utility scores (fewer quality-adjusted life years) for economic evaluations.
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