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01.12.2013 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2013 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2013

Correlates of opium use: retrospective analysis of a survey of tribal communities in Arunachal Pradesh, India

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2013
Himanshu K Chaturvedi, Jagadish Mahanta, Ram C Bajpai, Arvind Pandey
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1471-2458-13-325) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HKC contributed to the conception, analysis, and interpretation of the data and to the writing of the paper. JM contributed to study conception and provided the data collected on substance use. RCB contributed to data analysis and preparation of the draft paper. AP contributed to interpretation of the data and to writing of the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Household survey data of Changlang district, Arunachal Pradesh, were used in the present study to assess the prevalence of opium use among different tribes, and to examine the association between sociodemographic factors and opium use.


A sample of 3421 individuals (1795 men and 1626 women) aged 15 years and older was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression model to determine factors associated with opium use. Sociodemographic information such as age, education, occupation, religion, ethnicity and marital status were included in the analysis.


The prevalence of opium use was significantly higher (10.6%) among men than among women (2.1%). It varied according to age, educational level, occupation, marital status and religion of the respondents. In both sexes, opium use was significantly higher among Singpho and Khamti tribes compared with other tribes. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that opium use was significantly associated with age, occupation, ethnicity, religion and marital status of the respondents of both sexes. Multivariate rate ratios (MRR) for opium use were significantly higher (4–6 times) among older age groups (≥35 years) and male respondents. In males, the MRR was also significantly higher in respondents of Buddhist and Indigenous religion, while in females, the MRR was significantly higher in Buddhists. Most of the female opium users had taken opium for more than 5 years and were introduced to it by their husbands after marriage. Use of other substances among opium users comprised mainly tobacco (76%) and alcohol (44%).


The study reveals the sociodemographic factors, such as age, sex, ethnicity, religion and occupation, which are associated with opium use. Such information is useful for institution of intervention measures to reduce opium use.
Additional file 1: The Census data of Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh, India.(PDF 52 KB)
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