Moringa oleifera Lam., an herb commonly consumed by HIV-infected people on antiretroviral therapy, inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4, 1A2 and 2D6 activity in vitro; and may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretroviral drugs metabolized via the same pathways. However, in vitro drug interaction activity may not translate to a clinically significant effect. Therefore, the effect of moringa leaf powder on the PK of nevirapine in HIV-infected people was investigated.
Adult patients at steady-state dosing with nevirapine were admitted for 12-h intensive PK sampling following a 21-day herbal medicine washout. Blood sampling was repeated after 14 days of nevirapine and moringa (1.85 g leaf powder/day) co-administration. Nevirapine plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To assess the effect of moringa on nevirapine PK, the change in nevirapine area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) was determined. The mean difference in pre- and post-moringa nevirapine, maximum concentration (Cmax) and concentration at 12 h (C12h) were also calculated. The PK parameters were compared by assessing the post/pre geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and associated 90% confidence intervals (CIs).
Pharmacokinetics analyses were performed on the results from 11 participants for whom complete data were obtained. The post/pre GMRs and associated 90% CIs for nevirapine were 1.07 (1.00–1.14) for the AUC; 1.06 (0.98–1.16) for Cmax and 1.03 (0.92–1.16) for C12h.
Co-administration of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder at the traditional dose did not significantly alter the steady-state PK of nevirapine.
Trial registration number NCT01410058 (ClinicalTrials.gov)
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- Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study
Tsitsi G. Monera-Penduka
Charles C. Maponga
Alan R. Wolfe
Gene D. Morse
Charles F. B. Nhachi
- BioMed Central
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