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01.12.2011 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2011 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2011

Hair analysis following chronic smoked-drugs-of-abuse exposure in adults and their toddler: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2011
Autoren:
Esther Papaseit, Xavier Joya, Marta Velasco, Ester Civit, Pau Mota, Marta Bertran, Oriol Vall, Oscar Garcia-Algar
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

EP was the main contributor in writing the manuscript. XJ was an important laboratory technician in biomarkers analyses, and contributed in writing the manuscript. MV analyzed the mother-infant data, reviewed the literature and the final manuscript, and contributed in writing the manuscript. EC was the main laboratory technician in biomarkers analyses. PM analyzed the mother-infant data, and was a contributor in writing the manuscript. MB analyzed the mother-infant data, and was the statistical expert. OV was the pediatrician responsible for coordination of data, and contributed in writing the manuscript. OGA analyzed the mother-infant data, reviewed the literature, and was a major contributor in writing the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Introduction

Over the past two decades, the study of chronic cocaine and crack cocaine exposure in the pediatric population has been focused on the potential adverse effects, especially in the prenatal period and early childhood. Non-invasive biological matrices have become an essential tool for the assessment of a long-term history of drug of abuse exposure.

Case report

We analyze the significance of different biomarker values in hair after chronic crack exposure in a two-year-old Caucasian girl and her parents, who are self-reported crack smokers. The level of benzoylecgonine, the principal metabolite of cocaine, was determined in segmented hair samples (0 cm to 3 cm from the scalp, and > 3 cm from the scalp) following washing to exclude external contamination. Benzoylecgonine was detectable in high concentrations in the child's hair, at 1.9 ng/mg and 7.04 ng/mg, respectively. Benzoylecgonine was also present in the maternal and paternal hair samples at 7.88 ng/mg and 6.39 ng/mg, and 13.06 ng/mg and 12.97 ng/mg, respectively.

Conclusion

Based on the data from this case and from previously published poisoning cases, as well as on the experience of our research group, we conclude that, using similar matrices for the study of chronic drug exposure, children present with a higher cocaine concentration in hair and they experience more serious deleterious acute effects, probably due to a different and slower cocaine metabolism. Consequently, children must be not exposed to secondhand crack smoke under any circumstance.

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Literatur
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