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18.02.2021 | Original Research Article

High-Protein Plant-Based Diet Versus a Protein-Matched Omnivorous Diet to Support Resistance Training Adaptations: A Comparison Between Habitual Vegans and Omnivores

Zeitschrift:
Sports Medicine
Autoren:
Victoria Hevia-Larraín, Bruno Gualano, Igor Longobardi, Saulo Gil, Alan L. Fernandes, Luiz A. R. Costa, Rosa M. R. Pereira, Guilherme G. Artioli, Stuart M. Phillips, Hamilton Roschel
Wichtige Hinweise

Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s40279-021-01434-9.

Abstract

Background

Acute protein turnover studies suggest lower anabolic response after ingestion of plant vs. animal proteins. However, the effects of an exclusively plant-based protein diet on resistance training-induced adaptations are under investigation.

Objective

To investigate the effects of dietary protein source [exclusively plant-based vs. mixed diet] on changes in muscle mass and strength in healthy young men undertaking resistance training.

Methods

Nineteen young men who were habitual vegans (VEG 26 ± 5 years; 72.7 ± 7.1 kg, 22.9 ± 2.3 kg/m2) and nineteen young men who were omnivores (OMN 26 ± 4 years; 73.3 ± 7.8 kg, 23.6 ± 2.3 kg/m2) undertook a 12-week, twice weekly, supervised resistance training program. Habitual protein intake was assessed at baseline and adjusted to 1.6 g kg−1 day−1 via supplemental protein (soy for VEG or whey for OMN). Dietary intake was monitored every four weeks during the intervention. Leg lean mass, whole muscle, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), as well as leg-press 1RM were assessed before (PRE) and after the intervention (POST).

Results

Both groups showed significant (all p < 0.05) PRE-to-POST increases in leg lean mass (VEG: 1.2 ± 1.0 kg; OMN: 1.2 ± 0.8 kg), rectus femoris CSA (VEG: 1.0 ± 0.6 cm2; OMN: 0.9 ± 0.5 cm2), vastus lateralis CSA (VEG: 2.2 ± 1.1 cm2; OMN: 2.8 ± 1.0 cm2), vastus lateralis muscle fiber type I (VEG: 741 ± 323 µm2; OMN: 677 ± 617 µm2) and type II CSA (VEG: 921 ± 458 µm2; OMN: 844 ± 638 µm2), and leg-press 1RM (VEG: 97 ± 38 kg; OMN: 117 ± 35 kg), with no between-group differences for any of the variables (all p > 0.05).

Conclusion

A high-protein (~ 1.6 g kg−1 day−1), exclusively plant-based diet (plant-based whole foods + soy protein isolate supplementation) is not different than a protein-matched mixed diet (mixed whole foods + whey protein supplementation) in supporting muscle strength and mass accrual, suggesting that protein source does not affect resistance training-induced adaptations in untrained young men consuming adequate amounts of protein.

Clinical Trial Registration

NCT03907059. April 8, 2019. Retrospectively registered.

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