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01.12.2017 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 1/2017

Income-related inequality in smoking cessation among adult patients with cardiovascular disease: a 5-year follow-up of an angiography intervention in Luxembourg

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2017
Anastase Tchicaya, Nathalie Lorentz, Stefaan Demarest



Smoking contributes to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), a leading cause of death and a large source of healthcare costs in Western countries. We examined the association between income and smoking cessation among smokers who underwent coronary angiography at the National Institute for Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology in Luxembourg.


Data were derived from a follow-up study conducted in 2013/2014 among 4391 patients (of which 1001 patients were smokers) at the time of coronary angiography in 2008/2009. Four logistic regression models were applied. In three models, the predictor was income and the covariates were sex, age, nationality, marital status, diagnosis, body mass, physical activity, and awareness of tobacco as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. In the other model, the predictor was an interaction term composed of income and awareness of tobacco as a CV risk factor; the other variables were covariates.


Among patients who were current smokers at baseline, 43.2% were current smokers at follow-up and 56.8% had quit smoking. In the multivariate logistic models, quitting smoking was associated with income even after controlling for socio-demographic, diagnostic, and behavioural risk factors. In the full model, the odds of quitting smoking among patients in the two highest income categories remained significant when compared to patients in the lowest income category: odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–6.1 and OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2–6.5, respectively. In the full model with an interaction term, quitting smoking was only associated with income when patients knew tobacco was a CV risk factor. The odds of smoking cessation were 5.62 (95% CI: 2.13–14.86) and 3.65 (95% CI: 1.51–8.86) times for patients with annual incomes of 36,000–53,999€ and ≥54,000€, respectively), compared to those for patients with an annual income of <36,000€.


This study highlights the influence of income on behaviours regarding CVD risk factors after a major CVD event. Patients in the highest income groups were more likely to quit smoking, although only when they were aware of tobacco as a CV risk factor. Therefore, intervention strategies targeting lower income groups should be implemented in major health facilities.
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