The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-018-0209-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Competitive bodybuilders employ a combination of resistance training, cardiovascular exercise, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in order to lose fat mass and maintain fat free mass. Although recommendations exist for contest preparation, applied research is limited and data on the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders are restricted to case studies or small cohorts. Moreover, the influence of different nutritional strategies on competitive outcome is unknown.
Fifty-one competitors (35 male and 16 female) volunteered to take part in this project. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual national competition for high level bodybuilders; competitors must qualify by winning at a qualifying events or may be invited at the judge’s discretion. Competitors are subject to stringent drug testing and have to undergo a polygraph test. Study of this cohort provides an opportunity to examine the dietary practices of high level natural bodybuilders. We report the results of a cross-sectional study of bodybuilders competing at the BNBF finals. Volunteers completed a 34-item questionnaire assessing diet at three time points. At each time point participants recorded food intake over a 24-h period in grams and/or portions. Competitors were categorised according to contest placing. A “placed” competitor finished in the top 5, and a “Non-placed” (DNP) competitor finished outside the top 5. Nutrient analysis was performed using Nutritics software. Repeated measures ANOVA and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were used to test if nutrient intake changed over time and if placing was associated with intake.
Mean preparation time for a competitor was 22 ± 9 weeks. Nutrient intake of bodybuilders reflected a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet. Total carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes decreased over time in both male and female cohorts (P < 0.05). Placed male competitors had a greater carbohydrate intake at the start of contest preparation (5.1 vs 3.7 g/kg BW) than DNP competitors (d = 1.02, 95% CI [0.22, 1.80]).
Greater carbohydrate intake in the placed competitors could theoretically have contributed towards greater maintenance of muscle mass during competition preparation compared to DNP competitors. These findings require corroboration, but will likely be of interest to bodybuilders and coaches.
Bamman MM, Hunter GR, Newton LE, Roney RK, Khaled MA. Changes in body composition, diet, and strength of bodybuilders during the 12 weeks prior to competition. J Sport Med Phys Fitness. 1993;33:383–91.
Kleiner SM, Bazzarre TL, Litchford MD. Metabolic profiles, diet, and health practices of championship male and female bodybuilders. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90:962–7. PubMed
Rossow LM, Fukuda DH, Fahs CA, Loenneke JP, Stout JR. Natural bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery: a 12-month case study. Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 2013;8:582–92. CrossRef
Liokaftos D. A genealogy of male bodybuilding: from classical to freaky. Routledge: Taylor & Francis; 2017.
Helms ER, Fitschen PJ, Aragon AA, Cronin J, Schoenfeld BJ. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015;55:164–78. PubMed
British Natural Bodybuilding Federation. List of banned substances. 2017. http://www.bnbf.co.uk/banned-substances. Accessed 14 Apr 2017.
World Anti-Doping Agency. List of prohibited substances and methods (2017). https://www.wada-ama.org/en/prohibited-list. Accessed 14 Apr 2017.
Bodybuilding.com. Contest Preparation. 2017. Available online: https://www.bodybuilding.com/content/5-mistakes-beginners-make-during-contest-prep.html. Accessed 20 June 2017.
Kouri EM, Pope HG Jr, Katz DL, Oliva P. Fat-free mass index in users and nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Clin J Sports Med. 1995;5:223–8. CrossRef
European Food Safety Authority. The food classification and description system. FoodEx2, revision 2. EFSA supporting publications. 2015;EN-804. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/assets/804e.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2016.
Bazzarre TL, Kleiner SM, Litchford MD. Nutrient intake, body fat, and lipid profiles of competitive male and female bodybuilders. J Am Col Nutr. 1990;9:136–42. CrossRef
Van der Ploeg GE, Brooks AG, Withers RT, Dollman J. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. Eur J Cin Nutr. 2001;55:268. CrossRef
Schutz Y, Kyle UUG, Pichard C. Fat-free mass index and fat mass index percentiles in Caucasians aged 18- 98 y. Int J Obesity. 2002;26:953–60. CrossRef
Lankford B, Campbell BI. Self-reported energy intake of male & female bodybuilders in the scientific literature. JISSN. 2012;9:P19. PubMedCentral
Slater G, Phillips SM. Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding. J Sport Sci. 2011;29(sup1):S67–77. CrossRef
Tesch PA, Ploutz-Snyder LL, Yström L, Castro MJ, Dudley GA. Skeletal muscle glycogen loss evoked by resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 1998;12:67–73.
Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ, Langkamp-Henken B. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:260–74. PubMed
Wycherley TP, Moran LJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M, Brinkworth GD. Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;(Suppl 112) https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.044321.
Gentil P, Lira CAB, Paoli A, Santos AB, Silva ADT, Junior JRP, Silva EP, Magosso RF. Nutrition, pharmacological and training strategies adopted by six bodybuilders: case report and critical review. Eur J Transl Myol. 2017;27:51–66.
Withers RT, Noell CJ, Whittingham NO, Chatterton BE, Schultz CG, Keeves JP. Body composition changes in elite male bodybuilders during preparation for competition. Aust J Sci Med Sport. 1997;29:11–6.
Too D, Wakayama EJ, Locati LL, Landwer GE. Effect of a precompetition bodybuilding diet and training regimen on body composition and blood chemistry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1998;38:245–52. PubMed
Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Lemmens SG, Westerterp KR. Dietary protein–its role in satiety, energetics, weight loss and health. BJN. 2012;108(S2):S105–12. CrossRef
Pesta DH, Samuel VT. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats. Nutr Metab. 2014;11:53. CrossRef
Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM, American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2016;48:543.
Newton LE, Hunter G, Bammon M, Roney R. Changes in psychological state and self-reported diet during various phases of training in competitive bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. 1993;7:153–8.
Cho S, Lee H, Kim K. Physical characteristics and dietary patterns of strength athletes; bodybuilders, weight lifters. Korean J Community Nutr. 2007;12:864–72.
Tetens I. EFSA panel on dietetic products, nutrition and allergies: scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine. European food safety authority. 2015. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4102/epdf Accessed 26 May 2017.
Spriet LL, MacLean DA, Dyck DJ, Hultman E, Cederblad G, Graham TE. Caffeine ingestion and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 1992;262:E891–8. CrossRef
- Nutritional strategies of high level natural bodybuilders during competition preparation
A. J. Chappell
M. E. Barker
- BioMed Central
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Elektronische ISSN: 1550-2783
Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II