As the most common form of movement, walking happens not only on flat but also on uneven surfaces, where constant loss and regaining of balance occur. The main balancing function of the ankle joint is performed by tibial muscles. When changing inclination in a frontal plane, an essential balancing function is performed by the peroneal muscles. One of the methods for improving the activity of peroneal muscles is walking with different foot placement. The objective of this study was to analyze the activity of the peroneal muscles when performing different types of walking.
Sixteen healthy participants took part in this study, walking on a flat surface (NORM), on a medial incline ramp with the plantar surface of the foot fully placed on the surface (FULL), and on a medial incline ramp with elevated lateral part of the foot (LAT). We monitored the changes of EMG signals in peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscles. We monitored kinematic parameters (gait speed, stride length, contact time, foot position). The parametric ANOVA test and a non-parametric Friedman test were used at an alpha level of 0.05.
This study shows that the EMG activities of peroneal muscles increases when walking on the medial incline ramp. Statistically significant EMG differences were observed in the peroneal muscles, TA and GL muscles. We observe a very high percentage of normalized EMG value of the PL muscle in LAT walking. Walking on a medial incline ramp impacts the foot position, contact time, and stride length but not the gait speed.
Walking on a medial incline ramp could be an effective exercise to improve the neuro-muscular function of the peroneal muscles and, therefore, might be a suitable exercise for people with weakened ankle evertors.
Dolenec A, Štirn I, Strojnik V. Activation pattern of lower leg muscles in running on asphalt. Gravel and Grass Coll Antropol. 2015;39(Suppl 1):167–72. PubMed
Lee S, Ahn S. Comparison of lower limb muscle activities by various angles of a Medio-lateral ramp during gait. J Korean Soc Phys Med. 2017;12:93–8. CrossRef
Kirby KA. Longitudinal arch load-sharing system of the foot. Rev Española Podol. 2017;28:e18–26. CrossRef
Thordarson DB, Schmotzer H, Chon J, Peters J. Dynamic support of the human longitudinal arch. A biomechanical evaluation. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995;316:165–72.
Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait. J Foot Ankle Res. 2009;2:1–9. CrossRef
Smith BI, Docherty CL, Simon J, Klossner J, Schrader J. Ankle strength and force sense after a progressive, 6-week strength-training program in people with functional ankle instability. J Athl Train. 2012;47:282–8.
Lee S-Y, Lee S-M, Jung J-M. Peroneus Longus activity according to various angles of a ramp during cross-ramp walking and one-legged standing. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2017;1:1–5.
Su XX, Gu YD, Ruan GQ, Ren XJ. Forefoot plantar pressure distribution character during inversion position. Key Eng Mater. 2011;474–476:666–8. CrossRef
Ha SC-W, Fong DT-P, Chan K-M. Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory. Asia-Pacific J Sport Med Arthrosc Rehabil Technol. 2015;2:114–21.
Nagai K, Yamada M, Uemura K, Tanaka B, Mori S, Yamada Y, et al. Effects of fear of falling on muscular coactivation during walking. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2012;24:157–61. PubMed
Mark Coglianese THJ. Alterations in Evertor/Invertor Muscle Activation and Cop Trajectory during a Forward Lunge in Participants with Functional Ankle Instability. Clin Res Foot Ankle. 2014;2:02–6.
Monaghan K, Delahunt E, Caulfield B. Ankle function during gait in patients with chronic ankle instability compared to controls. Clin Biomech. 2006;21:168–74. CrossRef
Kim S-C, Lee S-Y. Gluteus Medius muscle activities according to various angle of Mediolateral ramp during cross walking and one-leg standing. J Korean Soc Phys Med. 2017;12:53–7. CrossRef
- Peroneal muscle activity during different types of walking
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Mail Icon II