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01.12.2011 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2011 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2011

Pontine stroke presenting as isolated facial nerve palsy mimicking Bell's palsy: a case report

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2011
Autoren:
Rishi Agarwal, Lochana Manandhar, Paramveer Saluja, Bala Grandhi
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1752-1947-5-287) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

RA cared for the patient, did the literature search, and wrote the manuscript. LM and PS helped in the literature search and manuscript writing. BG was the attending physician and helped in the manuscript writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Introduction

Isolated facial nerve palsy usually manifests as Bell's palsy. Lacunar infarct involving the lower pons is a rare cause of solitary infranuclear facial paralysis. The present unusual case is one in which the patient appeared to have Bell's palsy but turned out to have a pontine infarct.

Case presentation

A 47-year-old Asian Indian man with a medical history of hypertension presented to our institution with nausea, vomiting, generalized weakness, facial droop, and slurred speech of 14 hours' duration. His physical examination revealed that he was conscious, lethargic, and had mildly slurred speech. His blood pressure was 216/142 mmHg. His neurologic examination showed that he had loss of left-sided forehead creases, inability to close his left eye, left facial muscle weakness, rightward deviation of the angle of the mouth on smiling, and loss of the left nasolabial fold. Afferent corneal reflexes were present bilaterally. MRI of the head was initially read as negative for acute stroke. Bell's palsy appeared less likely because of the acuity of his presentation, encephalopathy-like imaging, and hypertension. The MRI was re-evaluated with a neurologist's assistance, which revealed a tiny 4 mm infarct involving the left dorsal aspect of the pons. The final diagnosis was isolated facial nerve palsy due to lacunar infarct of dorsal pons and hypertensive encephalopathy.

Conclusion

The facial nerve has a predominant motor component which supplies all muscles concerned with unilateral facial expression. Anatomic knowledge is crucial for clinical localization. Bell's palsy accounts for around 72% of facial palsies. Other causes such as tumors and pontine infarcts can also present as facial palsy. Isolated dorsal infarct presenting as isolated facial palsy is very rare. Our case emphasizes that isolated facial palsy should not always be attributed to Bell's palsy. It can be a presentation of a rare dorsal pontine infarct as observed in our patient.

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