IMRT provides higher dose conformation to the target and dose sparing to surrounding tissues than 3DCRT. Monte Carlo method in Medical Physics is not a novelty to approach dosimetric problems. A new PENELOPE based code named PRIMO recently was published. The most intriguing features of PRIMO are the user-friendly approach, the stand-alone property and the built-in definition of different linear accelerators models. Nevertheless, IMRT simulations are not yet implemented.
A Varian Trilogy with a Millennium120 MLC and a Varian Novalis with 120HD MLC were studied. A RW3 multi-slab phantom was irradiated with Gafchromic films inserted between slabs. An Expression 10000XL scanner (Seiko Epson Corp., Nagano, Japan) was used to digitalize the films. PTW-Verisoft software using the global Gamma Function (2%, 2 mm) was used to compare simulated and experimental results.
The primary beam parameters were adjusted to best match reference data previously obtained in a water phantom. Static MLC simulations were performed to validate the MLC models in use. Two Dynamic IMRT preliminary tests were performed with leaves moving with constant and variable speed. A further test of an in phantom delivery of a real IMRT field allowed simulating a clinical-like MLC modulation.
Simulated PDD, X- and Y-profiles in reference conditions showed respectively 100.0%, 100.0% and 99.4% of Gamma points < 1 (2%, 2 mm). Static MLC simulations showed 100.0% of Gamma points < 1 with the 120HD MLC and 99.1% with the Millennium compared with the scanned images.
The fixed speed test showed 99.5 and 98.9% of Gamma points < 1 respectively with two different MLC configuration-sampling algorithms when the 120HD MLC was used. The higher modulation MLC motion simulation showed 99.1% of Gamma points < 1 with respect to the experimental. This result depends on the number of the fields to reproduce the MLC motion, as well as calculation time. The clinical-like simulation showed 96.2% of Gamma points < 1 using the same analysis conditions.
The numerical model of the Varian Trilogy and Novalis in the PRIMO software was validated. The algorithms to simulate MLC motion were considered reliable. A clinical-like procedure was successfully simulated.