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01.12.2017 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2017

Rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis, and multiple organ failure during telbivudine treatment for hepatitis B: a case report and review of the literature

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Jinxin Zheng, Minggui Deng, Xiaoliang Qiu, Zhong Chen, Duoyun Li, Xiangbin Deng, Qiwen Deng, Zhijian Yu

Abstract

Background

Telbivudine can cause severe side effects, including myositis, neuritis, rhabdomyolysis, and lactic acidosis. However, reported cases of telbivudine leading to multiple organ failure are rare. Here, we report a case of telbivudine-induced severe polymyositis, lactic acidosis, and multiple organ failure.

Case presentation

A 30-year-old Chinese man with hepatitis B virus infection received antiviral treatment with 600 mg of telbivudine daily for more than 11 months. He developed progressive weakness and myalgia, and subsequently experienced palpitations, chest tightness, lethargy, hypotension, and hypoxemia. Blood tests showed markedly elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (955 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (1375 U/L), blood urea nitrogen (14.9 mmol/L), creatine kinase (peak at 8050 U/L), and blood lactate (>20.0 mmol/L). His symptoms improved after continuous renal replacement therapy and short-term methylprednisolone treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, physical therapy, and rehabilitation for more than 2 months led to recovery of muscle strength to the normal range.

Conclusions

We conclude that continuous renal replacement and steroid therapies play key roles in stabilizing telbivudine-induced severe rhabdomyolysis, lactic acidosis, and multiple organ failure. Hyperbaric oxygen, physical therapy, and rehabilitation may aid in functional recovery after the acute phase of lactic acidosis and organ failure.

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