The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-260) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
TI and SK were involved in the whole process. RK, ST and AT analyzed the clinical case. KM and TW assisted with clinical aspects. RH was involved in hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunostaining. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Verruciform xanthoma is a rare, benign lesion characterized by hyperkeratosis and aggregates of foam cell macrophages. Here, we describe a case of verruciform xanthoma on the scrotum, in which the immunohistochemical localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a chemokine of the C-C or beta family that has been shown to induce the recruitment of monocytes for injured tissue, was analyzed to determine which cells release chemoattractants for macrophages.
A 75-year-old Japanese man with a well-defined nodule on the left scrotum was admitted to the hospital. An excision biopsy revealed epidermal papillary proliferation with parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and infiltration of foam cell macrophages, whereby a pathological diagnosis of benign cutaneous verruciform xanthoma was made. Immunohistochemically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was observed predominantly on cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive differentiating keratinocytes in the prickle cell layer. However, while infiltrating macrophages were densely stained for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers were almost negative.
We demonstrated that keratinocyte-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 plays an important role in the establishment of particular histological features of verruciform xanthoma. However, in the present case, unlike in previous reports, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunostaining in keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal layers was not prominent. We speculate that in the active phase of verruciform xanthoma, when continuous stimuli that release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from keratinocytes to the surrounding stromal area are present, the apparent immunostaining of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 can be underestimated because of the void created by accelerated keratinocyte release from the cytoplasmic fraction.
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- Scrotal cutaneous verruciform xanthoma with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 immunohistochemical study: a case report
- BioMed Central