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01.12.2012 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

BMC Health Services Research 1/2012

Translating evidence-based guidelines into practice: a survey of practices of commissioners and managers of the English stop smoking services

BMC Health Services Research > Ausgabe 1/2012
Máirtín S McDermott, Heather Thomson, Robert West, Jennifer AM Kenyon, Andy McEwen
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1472-6963-12-121) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Heather Thomson, Robert West, Jennifer AM Kenyon and Andy McEwen contributed equally to this work.

Competing interests

MSMcD is employed by the NHS Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training (NCSCT). HT has received hospitality from Pfizer, who manufacture Champix. She is employed by NHS Leeds who have been recipients of research funds from the National Institute of Health Research. RW is a director of the NCSCT. He undertakes research and consultancy for companies that develop and manufacture smoking cessation medications (Pfizer, J&J, McNeil, GSK, Nabi, Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis). He also has a share of a patent for a novel nicotine delivery device and is a trustee of QUIT, a charity that provides stop smoking support. JK has received hospitality from Pfizer, who manufacture Champix. AMcE is also a director of the NCSCT. He has received travel funding, honoraria and consultancy payments from manufacturers of smoking cessation products (Pfizer, J&J, McNeil, GSK, Nabi, Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis). He also receives payment for providing training to smoking cessation specialists, receives royalties from books on smoking cessation and has a share in a patent of a nicotine delivery device.

Authors’ contributions

MSMcD collected, cleaned and analysed the data, drafted and revised the paper. HT contributed to the data analysis, drafted and revised the paper. RW & JK revised the draft paper. AMcE secured funding for this study and revised the draft paper. All authors had full access to all of the data (including statistical reports and tables) in the study and can take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors approved the final version of the article.



The English National Health Service’s (NHS) Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) constitute one of the most highly developed behavioural support programmes in the world. However, there is significant variation in success rates across the approximately 150 services, some of which may be due to variation in practice. This study aimed to assess these differences in practice.


Two online surveys were administered. All commissioners (people who purchase services for the NHS) and managers (those who run the services) of NHS SSSs in England were invited to participate. Items included details of current practices and services provided, what informed the commissioning of SSSs, what targets were included within service specifications and whether the types of treatment model to be delivered were specified.


Both surveys had a response rate of 35%, with 50 commissioners and 58 managers participating. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) from which commissioners and managers responded to this survey and those PCTs from which there was no response. Managers reported that the treatment model most frequently offered by SSSs was one-to-one (98%). A total of 16% of managers reported that some approved medications were not available as first-line treatments. Just over one third (38%) of commissioners reported consulting national guidelines or best evidence to inform local commissioning. Almost one third (30%) of commissioners reported that they specified the types of stop smoking interventions to be delivered by the providers.


A substantial part of commissioning of Stop Smoking Services in England appears to take place without adequate consultation of evidence-based guidelines or specification of the service to be provided. This may account for at least some of the variation in success rates.
Additional file 1: Study Questionnaires (Appendix A & Appendix B) (Additional material Study questionnaires.doc).(DOCX 32 KB)
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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