Ignacio Duran and Cristina Rodriguez-Antona acted as senior authors for this manuscript.
Renal epithelioid angiomyolipomas (EAML) are rare tumors with aggressive behavior. EAML can be sporadic or develop within the tuberous sclerosis complex syndrome, where mutations of TSC1 or TSC2 genes (critical negative regulators of mTOR Complex 1) result in an increased activation of mTOR pathway. Optimal EAML treatment, including mTOR inhibitors, remains undetermined.
Here we present the case of a young adult with a renal EAML that after radical nephrectomy developed metastases, first in liver and then in lumbar vertebrae. After complete surgical resection of these lesions, liver recurrence was detected, this time with incomplete surgical resection. After finding a new liver lesion, systemic treatment with sirolimus started. The patient exhibited a complete and durable response to this drug, being disease free at the time of publication, after 36 months of treatment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of MTOR, TSC1 and TSC2 genes in the primary tumor, metastasis and blood of the patient, revealed one inactivating TSC2 mutation (c.2739dup; p.K914*) in the tumor cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased TSC2 protein content and increased phospho-S6 in the tumor cells, demonstrating mTOR pathway activation.
NGS on an EAML patient with an extraordinary response to sirolimus uncovered TSC2 inactivation as the mechanism for the response. This study supports NGS as a useful tool to identify patients sensitive to mTOR inhibitors and supports the treatment of malignant EAML with these drugs.