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22.07.2021 | Original Article

Association between coronary artery calcium score on non-contrast chest computed tomography and all-cause mortality among patients with congestive heart failure

Heart and Vessels
Kyoko Ota, Rine Nakanishi, Hidenobu Hashimoto, Yuriko Okamura, Ippei Watanabe, Takayuki Yabe, Ryo Okubo, Takanori Ikeda
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Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score is a robust prognostic tool to predict cardiac events. Although patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) occasionally undergo non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), the prognostic utility of CAC by NCCT is not widely known. We aimed to determine if CAC measured on NCCT is associated with all-cause mortality (ACM) among patients with CHF. We identified 550 patients admitted due to CHF who underwent NCCT. Patients were categorized into three groups according to CAC scores 0, 1–999, and ≥ 1000. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess if CAC by NCCT was associated with ACM after adjusting for traditional coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, brain natriuretic peptide and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). In a subset of 245 patients with invasive coronary angiography (ICA), the associations between CAC scores and ACM were assessed in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Further, we assessed if CAC increased statin use at discharge. During a mean follow-up of 3.3 ± 3.1 years, ACM occurred in 168 patients (30.55%). Compared with patients with CAC 0, those with CAC ≥ 1000 (HR 1.564, 95% CI 0.969–2.524, P = 0.067) were more likely to experience ACM, while those with CAC score 1–999 (HR 0.971, 95% CI 0.673–1.399, P = 0.873) were not. Similarly, a trend toward significance was observed in patients with LVEF < 40% (HR 2.124, 95% CI 0.929–4.856, P = 0.074). In the sub-analysis, patients with CAC ≥ 1000 had increased ACM compared to those with CAC 0, only if ICA ≥ 50% (HR 3.668, 95% CI 1.141–11.797, P = 0.029). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that statin use at discharge was increased with ICA ≥ 50%, but not CAC. The CAC score measured by NCCT tended to be associated with ACM among CHF patients. Statin use was not increased by CAC on NCCT.

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