The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-018-0731-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The health effects of biological aerosols on the respiratory system are unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association of airborne particle, protein, and endotoxin with emergency department visits for asthma in Kyoto City, Japan.
We collected data on emergency department visits at a hospital in Kyoto from September 2014 to May 2016. Fine (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) and coarse (≥ 2.5 μm) particles were collected in Kyoto, and protein and endotoxin levels were analyzed. The association of the levels of particles, protein, endotoxin, and meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and air pressure) with emergency department visits for asthma was estimated.
There were 1 to 15 emergency department visits for asthma per week, and the numbers of visits increased in the autumn and spring, namely many weeks in September, October, and April. Weekly concentration of protein in fine particles was markedly higher than that in coarse particles, and protein concentration in fine particles was high in spring months. Weekly endotoxin concentrations in fine and coarse particles were high in autumn months, including September 2014 and 2015. Even after adjusting for meteorological factors, the concentrations of coarse particles and endotoxin in both particles were significant factors on emergency department visits for asthma.
Our results suggest that atmospheric coarse particles and endotoxin are significantly associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbation.
Additional file 1: Figure S1. Mass concentrations of fine (a) and coarse (b) particles in the outdoor air of Kyoto, Japan (September 2014–May 2016). Figure S2. Concentrations of protein in fine (a) and coarse (b) particles in the outdoor air of Kyoto, Japan (September 2014–May 2016). Figure S3. Concentrations of endotoxin in fine (a) and coarse (b) particles in the outdoor air of Kyoto, Japan (September 2014–May 2016). (ZIP 1803 kb)12199_2018_731_MOESM1_ESM.zip
Fan J, Li S, Fan C, Bai Z, Yang K. The impact of PM2.5 on asthma emergency department visits: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016;23:843–50. CrossRef
Atkinson RW, Anderson HR, Sunyer J, Ayres J, Baccini M, Vonk JM, Boumghar A, Forastiere F, Forsberg B, Touloumi G, Schwartz J, Katsouyanni K. Acute effects of particulate air pollution on respiratory admissions: results from APHEA 2 project. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1860–6. CrossRefPubMed
Parrado ZG, Gonzalez DF, Camazon B, Barrera RMV, Maray AMV, Asturias JA, et al. Molecular aerobiology – Plantago allergen Pla l 1 in the atmosphere. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(2):282–9. CrossRef
Kang H, Xie Z, Hu Q. Ambient protein concentration in PM10 in Hefei, central China. Atmos Environ. 2012;54:73–9. CrossRef
Miguel AG, Cass GR, Glovsky MM, Weiss J. Allergens in paved road dust and airborne particles. Environ Sci Technol. 1999;33:4159–68. CrossRef
Cheng JYW, Hui ELC, Lau PC. Bioactive and total endotoxins in atmospheric aerosols in the Pearl River Delta region, China. Atmos Environ. 2012;47:3–11. CrossRef
Heinrich J, Pitz M, Bischof W, Krug N, Borm PJA. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis. Atmos Environ. 2003;37:3659–67. CrossRef
Nilsson S, Merritt AS, Bellander T. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden. Atmos Environ. 2011;45:266–70. CrossRef
The Japan Meteorological Agency. Information on past weather data (in Japanese). Available at: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/obd/stats/etm/index.php. Accessed 10 Jan 2018.
Castilloa JA, Statona SJR, Taylorb TJ, Herckesa P, Hayesa MA. Exploring the feasibility of bioaerosol analysis as a novel fingerprinting technology. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;403(1):15–26. CrossRef
Mitchel O, Ginanni R, Bon BL, Content J, Duchateau J, Sergysels R. Inspiratory response to acute inhalation of endotoxin in asthmatic patients. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146:352–7. CrossRef
Kanchongkittiphone W, Mendell MJ, Gaffin JM, Wang G, Phipatanakul W. Indoor environmental exposures and exacerbation of asthma: an update to the 2000 review by the Institute of Medicine. Environ Health Perspect. 2015;123:6–19. CrossRef
The Japan Meteorological Agency. Information on data bank of global environment-Kosa (in Japanese). Available at: http://www.data.jma.go.jp/gmd/env/kosahp/kosa_data_index.html. Accessed 10 Jan 2018.
- Association of airborne particles, protein, and endotoxin with emergency department visits for asthma in Kyoto, Japan
Mohammad Shahriar Khan
- BioMed Central