Positive-interaction parenting early in childhood is encouraged due to its association with behavioural development later in life. The objective of this study was to examine if the level of positive-interaction parenting style differs among teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada, and to identify the characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting style separately for each age group.
This was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. First-time mothers with children 0–23 months were grouped into: teen (15–19 years, N = 53,409), optimal age (20–34 years, N = 790,960), and advanced age (35 years and older, N = 106,536). The outcome was positive-interaction parenting style (Parenting Practices Scale); maternal socio-demographics, health, social, and child characteristics were considered for backward stepwise multiple linear regression modeling, stratified for each of the age groups.
Teen, optimal age, and advanced age mothers reported similar levels of positive- interaction parenting style. Covariates differed across the three age groups. Among optimal age mothers, being an ever-landed immigrant, childcare use, and being devoted to religion were found to decrease positive-interaction parenting style, whereas, higher education was found to increase positive-interaction parenting style. Teen mothers were not found to have any characteristics uniquely associated with positive-interaction parenting. Among advanced age mothers, social support was uniquely associated with an increase in positive-interaction parenting. Very good/excellent health was found to be positively associated with parenting in teens but negatively associated with parenting in advanced age mothers.
Characteristics associated with positive-interaction parenting varied among the three age groups. Findings may have public health implications through information dissemination to first-time mothers, clinicians, researchers, and public health facilities.
Hoghughi M. The importance of parenting in child health. Br Med J. 1998;316:1545–50. CrossRef
Benzies K, Keown L-A, Magill-Evans J. Immediate and sustained effects of parenting on physical aggression. Can J Psychiatr. 2009;54(1):55–64. CrossRef
Azevedo FA, Seabra-Santos MJ, Gaspar MF, Homem T. A parent-based intervention programme involving preschoolers with AD/HD behaviours: are children’s and mothers’ effects sustained over time? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;23(6):437–50. CrossRef
Bradley B, Davis TA, Kaye J, Wingo A. Developmental social factors as promoters of resilience in childhood and adolescence. In: Kent M, Davis MC, Reich JW, editors. The resilience handbook: approaches to stress and trauma, Routledge, vol. 2013; 2013. p. 197–208.
Cheung CS, McBride-Chang C. Relations of perceived maternal parenting style, practices, and learning motivation to academic competence in Chinese children. Merrill-Palmer Q. 2008;54:1–22. CrossRef
VanVoorhis FL. Costs and benefits of family involvement in homework. Journal of Advanced Academics. 2011;22:220–49. CrossRef
Baumrind D. The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. J Early Adolesc. 1991;11:56–95. CrossRef
Baumrind D. Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Dev. 1966;37:887–907. CrossRef
Schofield TJ, Conger RD, Donnellan MB, Jochem R, Widaman KF, Conger KJ. Parent personality and positive parenting as predictors of positive adolescent personality development over time. Merrill Palmer Q. 2012;58(2):255–83. CrossRef
Garcia F, Garcia E. Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families. Adolescence. 2009;44(173):101–31. PubMed
Serrano-Villar M, Huang K-Y, Calzada EJ. Social support, parenting, and social emotional development in young Mexican and Dominican American children. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-016-0685-9. Epub ahead of print.
Izzo C, Weiss L, Shanahan T, Rodriguez-Brown F. Parental self-efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting practices and children’s socioemotional adjustment in Mexican immigrant families. J Prev Interv Commun. 2000;20(1–2):197–213. CrossRef
Trad P. Mental health of adolescent mothers. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1995;34(2):130–42. CrossRef
Lewin A, Mitchell SJ, Ronzio CR. Developmental differences in parenting behavior: comparing adolescent, emerging adult, and adult mothers. Merrill-Palmer Q. 2013;59(1):23–49. CrossRef
Whiteside-Mansell L, Pope S, Bradley P. Patterns of parenting behavior in young mothers. Fam Relat. 1996;45:273–81. CrossRef
Statistics Canada. (2015). Table 102–4507 – live births, by age and marital status of mother, Canada, annual. 2015. http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&retrLang=eng&id=1024507&tabMode=dataTable&srchLan=-1&p1=-1&p2=9#F1. Accessed 30 Jan 2016.
Statistics Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). National Longitudinal Survey of children and youth. User’s handbook and microdata guide. Ottawa: Minister of Industry; 2009.
Strayhorn JM, Weidman CS. A parent practices scale and its relation to parent and child mental health. Journal of American Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1988;27(5):613–8. CrossRef
Ho DYF. Continuity and variation in Chinese patterns of socialization. J Marriage Fam. 1989;51:149–63. CrossRef
Daglar M, Melhuish E, Barnes J. Parenting and preschool child behaviour among Turkish immigrant, migrant and non-migrant families. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. 2011;8(3):261–79. CrossRef
Querido JG, Warner TD, Eyberg SM. Parenting styles and child behaviour in African-American families of pre-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 2002;31:272–7. CrossRef
Jose PE, Huntsinger CS, Huntsinger PR, Liaw FR. Parental values and practices relevant to young children’s social development in Taiwan and the United States. J Cross-Cult Psychol. 2000;31:677–702. CrossRef
Chao RK. Chinese and European American cultural models of the self reflected in mothers’ childrearing beliefs. Ethos. 1995;23:328–54. CrossRef
Azad G, Blacher J, Marcoulides G. Longitudinal models of soci-economic status: impact on positive parenting behaviors. Internal Journal of Behavioural Development. 2014;38(6):509–17. CrossRef
Belsky J, Bell B, Bradley RH, Stallard N, Lynette S, Steward-Brown SL. Socioeconomic risk, parenting during the preschool years and child health age 6 years. Eur J Pub Health. 2006;17(5):508–13. CrossRef
Lee C-YS, Anderson JR, Horowitz JL, August GJ. Family income and parenting: the role of parental depression and social support. Fam Relat. 2009;58:417–30. CrossRef
Jennings KD, Stagg V, Connors RE. Social networks and mothers’ interactions with their preschool children. Child Dev. 1991;62:966–78. CrossRef
Torquati JC. Personal and social resources as predictors of parenting in homeless families. J Fam Issues. 2002;23(4):463–85. CrossRef
- Characteristics of positive-interaction parenting style among primiparous teenage, optimal age, and advanced age mothers in Canada
Theresa H. M. Kim
Jennifer A. Connolly
- BioMed Central