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01.12.2018 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2018

Chinese translation and psychometric testing of the cardiac self-efficacy scale in patients with coronary heart disease in mainland China

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2018
Xuelin Zhang, Yan Zhan, Jun Liu, Shouxia Chai, Lanlan Xu, Meirong Lei, Karen Wei Ling Koh, Ying Jiang, Wenru Wang



A person’s self-efficacy plays a critical role during the chronic management process of a health condition. Assessment of self-efficacy for patients with heart diseases is essential for healthcare professionals to provide tailored interventions to help patient to manage the disease.


To translate and test the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of Cardiac Self-efficacy Scale (C-CSES) as a disease-specific instrument for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in mainland China.


The original English version of the CSES was translated into Chinese using a forward-backward translation approach. A convenience sample consisting of 224 Chinese patients with CHD were recruited from a university-affiliated hospital in Shiyan, China. The C-CSES and the General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) were used in this study. The factor structure, convergent and discriminative validities, and internal consistency of the C-CSES were evaluated.


The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a three-factor high-order structure of the C-CSES with model fit indexes (RMSEA = 0.084, CFI = 0.954, NNFI = 0.927, IFI = 0.954 and χ 2 /df = 2.572). The C-CSES has good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.926. The convergent validity of the C-CSES was established with significantly moderate correlations between the C-CSES and the Chinese version of the GSES (p < 0.001). The C-CSES has also shown good discriminative validity with significant differences of cardiac self-efficacy being found between patients with and without comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, or heart failure.


The empirical data supported that the C-CSES is a valid and reliable disease-specific instrument for assessing the self-efficacy of Chinese patients with CHD.
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