Agricultural workers especially in sugarcane plantations have a high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Little is known about CKD among sugarcane plantation workers in Cameroon. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence and identify factors associated with CKD in sugarcane plantation workers in Cameroon.
We conducted an analytic cross-sectional study including 204 adult workers at the sugarcane plantation complex in Mbandjock, Cameroon; over 500 m above sea level. Chronic kidney disease (proteinuria as estimated by urine dipstick analysis and/or estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 persistent after 3 months) was the outcome of interest. Those with abnormal results were seen again after 3 months to confirm the diagnosis. We evaluated the association between CKD and participant age, sex, contract-type, duration of employment, socio-economic status, workspace, exposure to agrochemicals, heavy metals and heat, selected risk factors and co-morbid conditions.
The overall prevalence of CKD was 3.4%. The factory workers were the most affected (7%), compared to the field (2.4%) and office workers (0%). 2.9% of the participants had persistent proteinuria, mild in every case, and 0.5% of them had an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Age ≥ 40 years was an independent predictor of CKD.
The prevalence of CKD among employees of the Mbandjock sugarcane plantation is low, probably reflecting the preventive measures against heat stress and dehydration in place.
Hill NR, Fatoba ST, Oke JL, Hirst JA, O’Callaghan CA, Lasserson DS, et al. Global prevalence of chronic kidney disease – a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016;11. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4934905/.
Almaguer M, Herrera R, Orantes CM. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in agricultural communities. MEDICC Rev. 2014;16:9–15. PubMed
Lebov JF, Valladares E, Peña R, Peña EM, Sanoff SL, Cisneros EC, et al. A population-based study of prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in León, Nicaragua. Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2015;2. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4414463/. Accessed 21 July 2015.
Vela XF, Henríquez DO, Zelaya SM, Granados DV, Hernández MX, Orantes CM. Chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in two Salvadoran farming communities, 2012. MEDICC Rev. 2014;16:55–60. PubMed
Torres C, Aragón A, González M, López I, Jakobsson K, Elinder C-G, et al. Decreased kidney function of unknown cause in Nicaragua: a community-based survey. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl. 2010;55:485–96. Kidney Found CrossRef
Peraza S, Wesseling C, Aragon A, Leiva R, García-Trabanino RA, Torres C, et al. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl. 2012;59:531–40. Kidney Found. CrossRef
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, (Lucy) ZY, Castro AF, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate Glomerular filtration rate. Ann. Intern. Med. 2009;150:604–12.
Institut National de la Statistique (INS) et ICF. International. Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples du Cameroun 2011. Calverton: INS et ICF International; 2012.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública - End-stage renal disease among patients in a referral hospital in El Salvador [internet]. 2015. Available from: http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?pid=S1020-49892002000900009&script=sci_arttext. Accessed 14 Sept 2015.
Benchmark dose approach for renal dysfunction in workers exposed to lead. - PubMed - NCBI [Internet]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17497640. Accessed 24 May 2016.
Devarajan P. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL): a new marker of kidney disease. Scand J Clin Lab Investig Suppl. 2008;241:89–94. CrossRef
Correa-Rotter R, Wesseling C, Johnson RJ. CKD of unknown origin in central America: the case for a Mesoamerican nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis Off J Natl. 2014;63:506–20. Kidney Found CrossRef
Fairfood International. “Treat Them Sweet. Fairfood International”. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.fairfood.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Treat_Them_Sweet_Issue_Briefing_FI.pdf.
Orantes CM, Herrera R, Almaguer M, Brizuela EG, Hernández CE, Bayarre H, et al. Chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: Nefrolempa study, 2009. MEDICC Rev. 2011;13:14–22. PubMed
Orantes CM, Herrera R, Almaguer M, Brizuela EG, Núñez L, Alvarado NP, et al. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in adults of Salvadoran agricultural communities. MEDICC Rev. 2014;16:23–30. PubMed
Raines N, González M, Wyatt C, Kurzrok M, Pool C, Lemma T, et al. Risk factors for reduced glomerular filtration rate in a Nicaraguan community affected by Mesoamerican nephropathy. MEDICC Rev. 2014;16:16–22. PubMed
- Chronic kidney disease in sugarcane workers in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study
Martin E. Ekiti
Felix K. Assah
Valirie N. Agbor
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II