The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0472-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Significant numbers of adults and children have untreated plaque due to poor oral hygiene and consequently suffer from associate dental and systemic diseases.
A handheld device equipped with 405 nm light-emitting diodes was constructed to examine the prevalence of red fluorescence signatures associated with dental plaque. This device was used for in vivo imaging of all four incisors and all four canines of twenty-eight consenting human subjects. The same areas were further imaged under white light illumination with a commercial image-processing based plaque-imaging device, and evaluated by a hygienist and dentist. A custom computer vision algorithm using pixel information was developed to calculate plaque coverage ratios ranging from 0 (no plaque) to 1 (complete plaque coverage) for images captured by both devices.
The algorithm calculated red fluorescence-based plaque coverage ratios ranging from 0.011 to 0.211 for the subjects imaged. Clinical assessment and statistical analyses of associated plaque ratios of the 405 nm device images indicated high sensitivity and specificity in detecting dental plaque by the experimental device compared to the commercial reference device.
The low-cost and open source 405 nm device and the associated computer vision algorithm successfully captured red fluorescence signatures associated with dental plaque and demonstrated comparable performance to a commercially available device. Therefore, a proof of concept validation was provided for the construction and application of a sensitive cost-effective plaque-detecting device. A miniaturized mobile adaptable version of the device was also provided, together with and a step-by-step guide for device assembly and webhost the associated software, to facilitate open-source access to a cost-effective at-home, in-clinic oral care technology.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03379337, December 19 2017. Retrospectively registered.
Additional file 1: Device construction. Component description of Plaquefinder and smartphone attachment variant. (DOCX 13 kb)
Additional file 2: Spectroscopic readings of select subjects, Spectroscopic readings of select subjects in Fig. for red fluorescence wavelength approximation. Spectroscopic readings of plaque from Fig. 4a subject M1; (b) subject M2. Note multiple peaks in both subjects. M1 has at least three discernable peaks, with the most intense at approximately 640 nm. M2 has at least two discernable peaks, with the most intense also at approximately 640 nm. Cut-on filter at 530 nm. (DOCX 210 kb)
Additional file 3: Spectroscopic readings of select subjects, Spectroscopic readings of select subjects in Fig. for red fluorescence wavelength approximation. A positive Delta denotes the reference device as having detected more plaque, while a negative Delta denotes the Plaquefinder as having found more plaque. (DOCX 14 kb)
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- Clinical validation and assessment of a modular fluorescent imaging system and algorithm for rapid detection and quantification of dental plaque
David A. Edlund
- BioMed Central
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