The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2318-14-142) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SAH drafted the manuscript and undertook statistical analysis with assistance and guidance from FM. ND and SM conducted and coordinated the fieldwork. The co-authors AB, SA were part of the research team involved with study design, set up and made substantial contribution to the collection of the data. RL assisted with data analysis and provided graphics used in the manuscript. KTK, NW and CB are principal investigators who contributed to the conception and study design and guidance on the presentation and interpretation of these data. All authors contributed to data analysis and interpretation of the data, and all authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
Although ageing is strongly associated with cognitive decline, a wide range of cognitive ability is observed in older populations with varying rates of change across different cognitive domains.
Cognitive function was measured as part of the third health examination of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk 3) between 2006 and 2011 (including measures from the pilot phase from 2004 to 2006). This was done using a battery consisting of seven previously validated cognitive function tests assessing both global function and specific domains. The battery included a shortened version of the Extended Mental State Exam (SF-EMSE); letter cancellation task; Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT); Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Paired Associates Learning Test (CANTAB-PAL); Visual Sensitivity Test (VST); Shortened version of the National Adult Reading Test (Short-NART) and a task to test for prospective memory. We report the distribution of cognitive function in different cognitive domains by age and sex and compare the utility of a number of assessment tests in a general population of older men and women.
Cognitive test data were available for 8585 men and women taking part in EPIC-Norfolk 3. Increasing age was generally associated with declining mean cognitive function, but there was a wide range observed within each age group as well as variability across different cognitive domains. Some sex differences were also observed.
Descriptive data are presented for this general population sample of older men and women. There is a wide range of cognitive performance seen in this population. Though average performance declines with age, there is large individual variability across different cognitive domains. These variations may provide insights into the determinants of cognitive function in later life.
Additional file 1: Supplementary information. Cognitive function in a general population of men and women: A cross sectional study in the European Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk cohort (EPIC-Norfolk). (DOCX 38 KB)
Additional file 2: Table S1: Cognitive scores stratified by age in men in EPIC-Norfolk 3. (XLSX 23 KB)
Additional file 3: Table S2: Cognitive scores stratified by age in women in EPIC-Norfolk 3. (XLSX 25 KB)
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- Cognitive function in a general population of men and women: a cross sectional study in the European Investigation of Cancer–Norfolk cohort (EPIC-Norfolk)
Shabina A Hayat
Fiona E Matthews
- BioMed Central
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