The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2296-15-18) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
RJK conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and drafted the manuscript. GFP participated in the design and performed the statistical analysis. SMC participated in the design of the study, and the analysis and interpretation of data. JAS participated in the analysis and interpretation of qualitative data. DRM participated in the design of the study, and the analysis and interpretation of the data. All authors provided critical review of manuscript drafts, including the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Technology-based aids for lifestyle change are becoming more prevalent for chronic conditions. Important “digital divides” remain, as well as concerns about privacy, data security, and lack of motivation. Researchers need a way to characterize participants’ readiness to use health technologies. To address this need, we created an instrument to measure patient readiness to engage with health technologies among adult patients with chronic conditions.
Initial focus groups to determine domains, followed by item development and refinement, and exploratory factor analysis to determine final items and factor structure. The development sample included 200 patients with chronic conditions from 6 family medicine clinics. From 98 potential items, 53 best candidate items were examined using exploratory factor analysis. Pearson’s Correlation for Test/Retest reliability at 3 months.
The final instrument had 28 items that sorted into 8 factors with associated Cronbach’s alpha: 1) Health Information Need (0.84), 2) Computer/Internet Experience (0.87), 3) Computer Anxiety (0.82), 4) Preferred Mode of Interaction (0.73), 5) Relationship with Doctor (0.65), 6) Cell Phone Expertise (0.75), 7) Internet Privacy (0.71), and 8) No News is Good News (0.57). Test-retest reliability for the 8 subscales ranged from (0.60 to 0.85).
The Patient Readiness to Engage in Health Internet Technology (PRE-HIT) instrument has good psychometric properties and will be an aid to researchers investigating technology-based health interventions. Future work will examine predictive validity.
Pew Internet: health. http://www.pewinternet.org/topics/Health,
Kruse RL, Koopman RJ, Wakefield BJ, Wakefield DS, Keplinger LE, Mehr DR: Internet use by primary care patients: where is the digital divide?. Fam Med. 2012, 44: 342-347. PubMed
Malhotra NK, Kim SS, Agarwal J: Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): the construct, the scale, and a causal model. Inf Syst Res. 2004, 15: 336-355. 10.1287/isre.1040.0032. CrossRef
van der Vaart R, Van Deursen AJ, Drossaert CH, Taal E, Van Dijk JA, van de Laar MA: Does the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) measure what it intends to measure? Validation of a Dutch version of the eHEALS in two adult populations. J Med Internet Res. 2011, 13: e86-10.2196/jmir.1840. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C, Hindmarsh M, Schaefer J, Bonomi A: Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001, 20: 64-78. 10.1377/hlthaff.20.6.64. CrossRef
Brodie M, Flournoy RE, Altman DE, Blendon RJ, Benson JM, Rosenbaum MD: Health information, the Internet, and the digital divide. Health Aff (Millwood). 2000, 19: 255-265. 10.1377/hlthaff.19.6.255. CrossRef
Pelletier AL, Sutton GR, Walker RR: Are your patients ready for electronic communication?. Fam Pract Manag. 2007, 14: 25-26. PubMed
Harrison AW, Rainer RK: An examination of the factor structures and concurrent validities for the computer attitude scale, the computer anxiety rating scale, and the computer-self-efficacy scale. Educ Psychol Meas. 1992, 52: 735-745. 10.1177/0013164492052003024. CrossRef
Bunz U, Curry C, Voon W: Perceived versus actual computer-email-web fluency. Comput Human Behav. 2007, 23: 2321-2344. 10.1016/j.chb.2006.03.008. CrossRef
Smith B, Caputi P, Rawstorne P: The development of a measure of subjective computer experience. Comput Human Behav. 2007, 23: 127-145. 10.1016/j.chb.2004.04.001. CrossRef
Bunz U: The Computer-Email-Web (CEW) Fluency Scale–development and validation. Int J Hum Comput Interact. 2004, 17: 479-506. 10.1207/s15327590ijhc1704_3. CrossRef
Yaghmaie F: Development of a scale for measuring user computer experience. J Res Nurs. 2007, 12: 185-190. 10.1177/1744987106068353. CrossRef
Gardner DG, Discenza R, Dukes RL: The measurement of computer attitudes: an empirical comparison of available scales. J Educ Comput Res. 1993, 9: 487-507. 10.2190/DXLM-5J80-FNKH-PP2L. CrossRef
Woodrow JE: A comparison of four computer attitude scales. J Educ Comput Res. 1991, 7: 165-187. 10.2190/WLAM-P42V-12A3-4LLQ. CrossRef
Murphy CA, Coover D, Owen SV: Development and validation of the computer self-efficacy scale. Educ Psychol Meas. 1989, 49: 893-899. 10.1177/001316448904900412. CrossRef
Swift JA, Glazebrook C, Macdonald I: Validation of a brief, reliable scale to measure knowledge about the health risks associated with obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006, 30: 661-668. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803165. CrossRef
Moss-Morris R, Weinman J, Petrie KJ, Horne R, Cameron LD, Buick D: The revised illness perception questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychol Health. 2002, 17: 1-16. 10.1080/08870440290001494. CrossRef
Weinman J, Petrie KJ, Moss-Morris R, Horne R: The illness perception questionnaire: a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of illness. Psychol Health. 1996, 11: 431-445. 10.1080/08870449608400270. CrossRef
Wrench JS: The influence of perceived risk knowledge on risk communication. Commun Res Rep. 2007, 24: 63-70. 10.1080/08824090601128182. CrossRef
Davis TC, Long SW, Jackson RH, Mayeaux EJ, George RB, Murphy PW, Crouch MA: Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument. Fam Med. 1993, 25: 391-395. PubMed
Davis TC, Crouch MA, Long SW, Jackson RH, Bates P, George RB, Bairnsfather LE: Rapid assessment of literacy levels of adult primary care patients. Fam Med. 1991, 23: 433-435. PubMed
Streiner DL, Norman GR: Selecting the items. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. 1995, New York: Oxford University Press, 54-68. 2
Holden RR, Fekken GC, Jackson DN: Structured personality test item characteristics and validity. J Res Pers. 1985, 19: 386-394. 10.1016/0092-6566(85)90007-8. CrossRef
Likert R: A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch Psychol. 1932, 22: 1-55.
Streiner DL, Norman GR: Biases in responding. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use. 1995, New York: Oxford University Press, 69-84. 2
Mundfrom DJ, Shaw DG, Tian LK: Minimum sample size recommendations for conducting factor analyses. Int J Test. 2005, 5: 159-168. 10.1207/s15327574ijt0502_4. CrossRef
Fabrigar LR, Wegener DT, MacCallum RC, Strahan EJ: Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychol Methods. 1999, 4: 272-299. CrossRef
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2010 summary tables. 2010, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ahcd/namcs_summary/2010_namcs_web_tables.pdf,
USA QuickFacts from the US Census. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html,
- Development of the PRE-HIT instrument: patient readiness to engage in health information technology
Richelle J Koopman
Gregory F Petroski
Shannon M Canfield
Julie A Stuppy
David R Mehr
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Allgemeinmedizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
Mail Icon II