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07.08.2018 | Sports Medicine

Different neuromuscular parameters influence dynamic balance in male and female football players

Zeitschrift:
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Autoren:
A. López-Valenciano, F. Ayala, M. De Ste Croix, D. Barbado, F. J. Vera-Garcia
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00167-018-5088-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyse the relationship between several parameters of neuromuscular performance with unilateral dynamic balance measured through the Y-Balance test, as well as to determine the possible sex-related differences.

Methods

The Y-Balance test, isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) knee flexion and extension strength, isometric hip abduction and adduction strength, lower extremity joint range of motion (ROM) (hip, knee and ankle) and core stability were assessed in male (n = 88) and female (n = 44) professional football players. A stepwise multivariate linear least square regression with backward elimination analysis was carried out to identify a group of factors that were independently associated with balance performance in both sexes.

Results

Passive hip flexion and ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexed ROM were the main factors that retained a significant association to dominant (R2 = 23.1) and non-dominant (R2 = 33.5) balance scores for males. For females, core stability, hip abduction isometric peak torque, passive hip abduction and ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexed ROM variables retained a significant association with balance scores for both, dominant (R2 = 38.2) and non-dominant (R2 = 46.9) legs.

Conclusions

Training interventions aimed at improving or maintaining unilateral dynamic balance in male football players should include, among other things, stretching exercises for the posterior chain of the lower extremity. However, females should also include exercises for strength and mobility of the hip abductors and core stability (especially in the frontal plane). This knowledge would allow clinicians and sport practitioners to develop more effective and tailored unilateral dynamic balance training interventions in male and female football players, possibly improving performance and reducing the risk of injury.

Level of evidence

III.

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Zusatzmaterial
Y-Balance Test™ directions; a) anterior reach direction; b) posteromedial reach direction; c) posterolateral reach direction (JPG 681 KB)
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Isometric hip adduction (a) and abduction (b) strength assessment (JPG 520 KB)
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Lower extremity joints ROM assessment: a) passive hip flexion with knee flexed test; b) passive hip flexion with knee extended test; c) passive knee flexion; d) passive hip extension; e) passive hip abduction; f) passive hip external rotation test; g) passive hip internal rotation test; h) ankle dorsiflexion with knee flexed test; and i) ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended test (JPG 2208 KB)
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Participant performing unstable sitting protocol. Projection providing visual feedback of participants’ centre of pressure and a target point moving across a circular path (JPG 625 KB)
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Isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength assessment (JPG 1009 KB)
167_2018_5088_MOESM5_ESM.jpg
Correlations of Isokinetic strength of the knee (flexion and extension), isometric strength of the hip (abduction and adduction), core stability and lower extremity joints range of motions measures with composite scores of the dominant and non-dominant leg for stance during Y-Balance test in male professional soccer players (n = 86) (DOCX 20 KB)
167_2018_5088_MOESM6_ESM.docx
Correlations of Isokinetic strength of the knee (flexion and extension), isometric strength of the hip (abduction and adduction), core stability and lower extremity joints range of motions measures with composite scores of the dominant and non-dominant leg for stance during Y-Balance test in female professional soccer players (n = 44). (DOCX 20 KB)
167_2018_5088_MOESM7_ESM.docx
Literatur
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