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27.04.2019 | Original Article

In vitro evaluation of the cariogenic potential of rebaudioside A compared to sucrose and xylitol

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Oral Investigations
Autoren:
Johanna Ganter, Elmar Hellwig, Sam Doerken, Ali Al-Ahmad
Wichtige Hinweise

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and acid synthesis of cariogenic pathogens in vitro when rebaudioside A was the sole source of carbon, compared to sucrose, xylitol, and a commercial sweetener containing rebaudioside A.

Materials and methods

First, sucrose or sugar substitutes were added to human saliva and the pH was measured over 10 h. Subsequently, the growth and acid synthesis efficiency of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus oralis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Candida albicans were investigated: after adding them to minimal culture media containing only one of the carbon sources, the optical density and pH were determined over 10 h.

Results

A significant pH drop only occurred in the sucrose group of human saliva whereas no differences were found between the sugar substitute groups. The individual strains of caries pathogens showed significantly lower growth rates and less acid synthesis in the sugar replacement groups, in comparison to sucrose. However, these groups also showed bacterial growth and a decline in pH.

Conclusion

Xylitol appeared to be superior to rebaudioside A regarding the inhibition of mutans streptococci. The results for the remaining microorganisms indicate that rebaudioside A causes a similar or lower acid synthesis than xylitol. As saliva contains buffer systems, the metabolism of rebaudioside A did not seem to shift the equilibrium to demineralization.

Clinical relevance

Rebaudioside A may not be suitable as a targeted Streptococcus mutans treatment, but it could contribute to a reduction of caries risk as a replacement for sucrose.

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