The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1752-1947-6-52) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
JR was the consultant neurologist who cared for the patient at the time of presentation and made the diagnosis. MI was the specialist registrar attached to the Neurology unit at the time and is responsible for drafting the case report. TM contributed to the writing of the case report. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Neurologic consequences of manganese toxicity have been recognized since 1837. A new form of presumed manganese poisoning has been reported in drug-addicted persons from Eastern Europe and the Baltic states who have intravenously injected self-prepared methcathinone hydrochloride (ephedrone), which is synthesized from pseudoephedrine hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as a potent oxidant. This clinical syndrome is under-recognized in Western Europe and there are no reported cases in the literature from Ireland.
We report a 30-year-old Eastern European man who presented with a two-year history of gait disturbance. A neurological assessment revealed features of parkinsonism which included hypophonia, hypomimia, mild bradykinesia and rigidity with no resting tremor. He held his arms slightly abducted from his sides when walking, with a reduction in arm swing. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed a high signal on T1 in the globus pallidus and serum manganese levels were raised. He had no response to levodopa.
Manganism secondary to ephedrone abuse causing parkinsonism has emerged in Western Europe in recent years due to mass immigration and often remains unrecognized. This paper highlights the various features of this rare cause of parkinsonism and aids in its recognition and subsequent diagnosis. Neurologists in Western Europe will increasingly encounter such patients.
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- Manganese toxicity with ephedrone abuse manifesting as parkinsonism: a case report
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