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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 1/2018

Maternal overweight is not an independent risk factor for increased birth weight, leptin and insulin in newborns of gestational diabetic women: observations from the prospective ‘EaCH’ cohort study

Zeitschrift:
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Raffael Ott, Jens H. Stupin, Andrea Loui, Elisabeth Eilers, Kerstin Melchior, Rebecca C. Rancourt, Karen Schellong, Thomas Ziska, Joachim W. Dudenhausen, Wolfgang Henrich, Andreas Plagemann

Abstract

Background

Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as well as overweight/obesity during pregnancy are risk factors for detrimental anthropometric and hormonal neonatal outcomes, identified to ‘program’ adverse health predispositions later on. While overweight/obesity are major determinants of GDM, independent effects on critical birth outcomes remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in women with GDM, the relative/independent impact of overweight/obesity vs. altered glucose metabolism on newborn parameters.

Methods

The prospective observational ‘Early CHARITÉ (EaCH)’ cohort study primarily focuses on early developmental origins of unfavorable health outcomes through pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to a ‘diabetogenic/adipogenic’ environment. It includes 205 mother-child dyads, recruited between 2007 and 2010, from women with treated GDM and delivery at the Clinic of Obstetrics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany. Recruitment, therapy, metabolite/hormone analyses, and data evaluation were performed according to standardized guidelines and protocols. This report specifically aimed to identify maternal anthropometric and metabolic determinants of anthropometric and critical hormonal birth outcomes in ‘EaCH’.

Results

Group comparisons, Spearman’s correlations and unadjusted linear regression analyses initially confirmed that increased maternal prepregnancy body-mass-index (BMI) is a significant factor for elevated birth weight, cord-blood insulin and leptin (all P < 0.05). However, consideration of and adjustment for maternal glucose during late pregnancy showed that no maternal anthropometric parameter (weight, BMI, gestational weight gain) remained significant (all n.s.). In contrast, even after adjustment for maternal anthropometrics, third trimester glucose values (fasting and postprandial glucose at 32nd and 36th weeks’ gestation, HbA1c in 3rd trimester and at delivery), were clearly positively associated with critical birth outcomes (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Neither overweight/obesity nor gestational weight gain appear to be independent determinants of increased birth weight, insulin and leptin. Rather, 3rd trimester glycemia seems to be crucial for respective neonatal outcomes. Thus, gestational care and future research studies should greatly consider late pregnancy glucose in overweight/obese women with or without GDM, for evaluation of critical causes and interventional strategies against ‘perinatal programming of diabesity’ in the offspring.
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