Skip to main content
Erschienen in: Herz 3/2015

01.05.2015 | Schwerpunkt

Prävention kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen durch Sport und körperliche Aktivität

Eine Frage der Intensität?

verfasst von: S. Wernhart, M. Dinic, A. Pressler, Prof. Dr. M. Halle

Erschienen in: Herz | Ausgabe 3/2015

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Zusammenfassung

Die koronare Herzkrankheit ist die häufigste Todesursache weltweit. Körperliche Inaktivität und eingeschränkte körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit sind für 9% der Fälle einer verfrühten Mortalität verantwortlich. Im Gegenzug führt regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität zu einer Steigerung der kardiopulmonalen Fitness, und beides wirkt sich positiv auf die kardiovaskuläre Morbidität und Mortalität aus, indem nicht wie bei medikamentöser Therapie einzelne Mechanismen angesprochen, sondern vielmehr multiple pathophysiologische Prozesse gleichzeitig günstig beeinflusst werden. So verbessert moderates Training signifikant das kardiovaskuläre Risikoprofil durch Blutdrucksenkung, Erhöhung der Insulinsensitivität, Verbesserung des Lipidstoffwechsels, Reduktion chronisch-inflammatorischer Konstellationen und Gewichtsreduktion. Dies ist abhängig von der Intensität der körperlichen Belastung. Studien der letzten Jahre zeigen, dass gerade höhere Intensitäten größere positive Effekte induzieren können als moderate Belastungen, die derzeit noch primär empfohlen werden. Dies muss allerdings vor dem Hintergrund bewertet werden, dass Belastungen mit hohem Umfang wie Marathontraining möglicherweise auch negative Effekte induzieren können. So zeigen sich bei diesen Sportlern in kleineren Studien eine echokardiographische Erweiterung des rechten Herzens und eine Dysfunktion mit erhöhter Fibrosierung im Tiermodell und einer unerwartet hohen Koronarsklerose. Inwieweit dies bei Gesunden langfristig zu einer erhöhten Inzidenz von Vorhofflimmern oder kardiovaskulären Ereignissen beiträgt, wird derzeit noch kontrovers diskutiert.
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K et al (2012) Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(9859):2095–2128 CrossRefPubMed Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K et al (2012) Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(9859):2095–2128 CrossRefPubMed
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee DC, Pate RR, Lavie CJ et al (2014) Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 64(5):472–481 CrossRefPubMed Lee DC, Pate RR, Lavie CJ et al (2014) Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. J Am Coll Cardiol 64(5):472–481 CrossRefPubMed
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Lavie CJ, McAuley PA, Church TS et al (2014) Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(14):1345–1354 CrossRefPubMed Lavie CJ, McAuley PA, Church TS et al (2014) Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(14):1345–1354 CrossRefPubMed
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Khan KM, Thompson AM, Blair SN et al (2012) Sport and exercise as contributors to the health of nations. Lancet 380(9836):59–64 CrossRefPubMed Khan KM, Thompson AM, Blair SN et al (2012) Sport and exercise as contributors to the health of nations. Lancet 380(9836):59–64 CrossRefPubMed
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Sui X, Hooker SP, Lee IM et al (2008) A prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 31(3):550–555 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Sui X, Hooker SP, Lee IM et al (2008) A prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 31(3):550–555 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Unick JL, Beavers D, Jakicic JM et al (2011) Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 34(10):2152–2157 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Unick JL, Beavers D, Jakicic JM et al (2011) Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 34(10):2152–2157 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Oldridge NB (2008) Economic burden of physical inactivity: healthcare costs associated with cardiovascular disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 15(2):130–139 CrossRefPubMed Oldridge NB (2008) Economic burden of physical inactivity: healthcare costs associated with cardiovascular disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 15(2):130–139 CrossRefPubMed
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F et al (2012) Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 380(9838):219–229 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F et al (2012) Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 380(9838):219–229 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Sattelmair J, Pertman J, Ding EL et al (2011) Dose response between physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Circulation 124(7):789–795 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Sattelmair J, Pertman J, Ding EL et al (2011) Dose response between physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Circulation 124(7):789–795 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Berry JD, Willis B, Gupta S et al (2011) Lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease mortality by cardiorespiratory fitness levels measured at ages 45, 55, and 65 years in men. The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 57(15):1604–1610 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Berry JD, Willis B, Gupta S et al (2011) Lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease mortality by cardiorespiratory fitness levels measured at ages 45, 55, and 65 years in men. The Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 57(15):1604–1610 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Gupta S, Rohatgi A, Ayers CR et al (2011) Cardiorespiratory fitness and classification of risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. Circulation 123(13):1377–1383 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Gupta S, Rohatgi A, Ayers CR et al (2011) Cardiorespiratory fitness and classification of risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. Circulation 123(13):1377–1383 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Blair SN, Kohl HW III, Paffenbarger RS Jr et al (1989) Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 262(17):2395–2401 CrossRefPubMed Blair SN, Kohl HW III, Paffenbarger RS Jr et al (1989) Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 262(17):2395–2401 CrossRefPubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V et al (2002) Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 346(11):793–801 CrossRefPubMed Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V et al (2002) Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 346(11):793–801 CrossRefPubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Schuler G, Adams V, Goto Y (2013) Role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: results, mechanisms, and new perspectives. Eur Heart J 34(24):1790–1799 CrossRefPubMed Schuler G, Adams V, Goto Y (2013) Role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: results, mechanisms, and new perspectives. Eur Heart J 34(24):1790–1799 CrossRefPubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Laursen AH, Kristiansen OP, Marott JL et al (2012) Intensity versus duration of physical activity: implications for the metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2(5) Laursen AH, Kristiansen OP, Marott JL et al (2012) Intensity versus duration of physical activity: implications for the metabolic syndrome. A prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2(5)
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Petersen CB, Gronbaek M, Helge JW et al (2012) Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality. Eur J Epidemiol 27(2):91–99 CrossRefPubMed Petersen CB, Gronbaek M, Helge JW et al (2012) Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality. Eur J Epidemiol 27(2):91–99 CrossRefPubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Schnohr P, Marott JL, Jensen JS, Jensen GB (2012) Intensity versus duration of cycling, impact on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(1):73–80 CrossRefPubMed Schnohr P, Marott JL, Jensen JS, Jensen GB (2012) Intensity versus duration of cycling, impact on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(1):73–80 CrossRefPubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK et al (2011) Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 378(9798):1244–1253 CrossRefPubMed Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK et al (2011) Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 378(9798):1244–1253 CrossRefPubMed
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Hahn V, Halle M, Schmidt-Trucksass A et al (2009) Physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in elderly German men and women: results from the population-based KORA survey. Diabetes Care 32(3):511–513 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Hahn V, Halle M, Schmidt-Trucksass A et al (2009) Physical activity and the metabolic syndrome in elderly German men and women: results from the population-based KORA survey. Diabetes Care 32(3):511–513 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Dohm GL (2002) Invited review: regulation of skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression by exercise. J Appl Physiol 93(2):782–787 CrossRefPubMed Dohm GL (2002) Invited review: regulation of skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression by exercise. J Appl Physiol 93(2):782–787 CrossRefPubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Duncan GE, Perri MG, Theriaque DW et al (2003) Exercise training, without weight loss, increases insulin sensitivity and postheparin plasma lipase activity in previously sedentary adults. Diabetes Care 26(3):557–562 CrossRefPubMed Duncan GE, Perri MG, Theriaque DW et al (2003) Exercise training, without weight loss, increases insulin sensitivity and postheparin plasma lipase activity in previously sedentary adults. Diabetes Care 26(3):557–562 CrossRefPubMed
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Adams V, Besler C, Fischer T et al (2013) Exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure promotes restoration of high-density lipoprotein functional properties. Circ Res 113(12):1345–1355 CrossRefPubMed Adams V, Besler C, Fischer T et al (2013) Exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure promotes restoration of high-density lipoprotein functional properties. Circ Res 113(12):1345–1355 CrossRefPubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Weber M, Baker MB, Moore JP, Searles CD (2010) MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393(4):643–648 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Weber M, Baker MB, Moore JP, Searles CD (2010) MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393(4):643–648 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Volaklis KA, Tokmakidis SP, Halle M (2013) Acute and chronic effects of exercise on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy and diseased patients. Clin Res Cardiol 102(4):249–257 CrossRefPubMed Volaklis KA, Tokmakidis SP, Halle M (2013) Acute and chronic effects of exercise on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy and diseased patients. Clin Res Cardiol 102(4):249–257 CrossRefPubMed
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Laufs U, Urhausen A, Werner N et al (2005) Running exercise of different duration and intensity: effect on endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 12(4):407–414 CrossRefPubMed Laufs U, Urhausen A, Werner N et al (2005) Running exercise of different duration and intensity: effect on endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 12(4):407–414 CrossRefPubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelmann F, Gelbrich G, Dungen HD et al (2011) Exercise training improves exercise capacity and diastolic function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: results of the Ex-DHF (Exercise training in Diastolic Heart Failure) pilot study. J Am Coll Cardiol 58(17):1780–1791 CrossRefPubMed Edelmann F, Gelbrich G, Dungen HD et al (2011) Exercise training improves exercise capacity and diastolic function in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: results of the Ex-DHF (Exercise training in Diastolic Heart Failure) pilot study. J Am Coll Cardiol 58(17):1780–1791 CrossRefPubMed
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH et al (2014) 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(25 Pt B):2889–2934 CrossRefPubMed Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH et al (2014) 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(25 Pt B):2889–2934 CrossRefPubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD et al (2014) 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(25 Pt B):2960–2984 CrossRefPubMed Eckel RH, Jakicic JM, Ard JD et al (2014) 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 63(25 Pt B):2960–2984 CrossRefPubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Vanhees L, Geladas N, Hansen D et al (2012) Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(5):1005–1033 CrossRefPubMed Vanhees L, Geladas N, Hansen D et al (2012) Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors: recommendations from the EACPR. Part II. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(5):1005–1033 CrossRefPubMed
31.
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Church TS, Kampert JB, Gibbons LW et al (2001) Usefulness of cardiorespiratory fitness as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men with systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 88(6):651–656 CrossRefPubMed Church TS, Kampert JB, Gibbons LW et al (2001) Usefulness of cardiorespiratory fitness as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men with systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol 88(6):651–656 CrossRefPubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Molmen-Hansen HE, Stolen T, Tjonna AE et al (2012) Aerobic interval training reduces blood pressure and improves myocardial function in hypertensive patients. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(2):151–160 CrossRefPubMed Molmen-Hansen HE, Stolen T, Tjonna AE et al (2012) Aerobic interval training reduces blood pressure and improves myocardial function in hypertensive patients. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19(2):151–160 CrossRefPubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindström J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M et al (2003) The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 26(12):3230–3236 CrossRefPubMed Lindström J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M et al (2003) The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 26(12):3230–3236 CrossRefPubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346(6):393–403 CrossRefPubMed Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346(6):393–403 CrossRefPubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M et al (2006) Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet 368(9548):1673–1679 CrossRefPubMed Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M et al (2006) Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet 368(9548):1673–1679 CrossRefPubMed
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG et al (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344(18):1343–1350 CrossRefPubMed Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Eriksson JG et al (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344(18):1343–1350 CrossRefPubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindström J, Peltonen M, Eriksson JG et al (2013) Improved lifestyle and decreased diabetes risk over 13 years: long-term follow-up of the randomised Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Diabetologia 56(2):284–293 CrossRefPubMed Lindström J, Peltonen M, Eriksson JG et al (2013) Improved lifestyle and decreased diabetes risk over 13 years: long-term follow-up of the randomised Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). Diabetologia 56(2):284–293 CrossRefPubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Tjonna AE, Lee SJ, Rognmo O et al (2008) Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study. Circulation 118(4):346–354 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Tjonna AE, Lee SJ, Rognmo O et al (2008) Aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise as a treatment for the metabolic syndrome: a pilot study. Circulation 118(4):346–354 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Karstoft K, Winding K, Knudsen SH et al (2013) The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes Care 36(2):228–236 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Karstoft K, Winding K, Knudsen SH et al (2013) The effects of free-living interval-walking training on glycemic control, body composition, and physical fitness in type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes Care 36(2):228–236 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Gibala MJ, Little JP, MacDonald MJ, Hawley JA (2012) Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590(Pt 5):1077–1084 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Gibala MJ, Little JP, MacDonald MJ, Hawley JA (2012) Physiological adaptations to low-volume, high-intensity interval training in health and disease. J Physiol 590(Pt 5):1077–1084 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD et al (2002) Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 347(19):1483–1492 CrossRefPubMed Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD et al (2002) Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 347(19):1483–1492 CrossRefPubMed
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Wadden TA, Neiberg RH, Wing RR et al (2011) Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19(10):1987–1998 Wadden TA, Neiberg RH, Wing RR et al (2011) Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success. Obesity (Silver Spring) 19(10):1987–1998
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Rejeski WJ, Bray GA, Chen SH et al (2015) Aging and physical function in type 2 diabetes: 8 years of an intensive lifestyle intervention. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 70(3):343–351 Rejeski WJ, Bray GA, Chen SH et al (2015) Aging and physical function in type 2 diabetes: 8 years of an intensive lifestyle intervention. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 70(3):343–351
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Kelley GA, Kelley KS (2007) Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Public Health 121(9):643–655 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Kelley GA, Kelley KS (2007) Effects of aerobic exercise on lipids and lipoproteins in adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials. Public Health 121(9):643–655 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Halle M, Berg A, Garwers U et al (1999) Influence of 4 weeks‘ intervention by exercise and diet on low-density lipoprotein subfractions in obese men with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 48(5):641–644 CrossRefPubMed Halle M, Berg A, Garwers U et al (1999) Influence of 4 weeks‘ intervention by exercise and diet on low-density lipoprotein subfractions in obese men with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism 48(5):641–644 CrossRefPubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F et al (2008) Running: the risk of coronary events: prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J 29(15):1903–1910 CrossRefPubMed Mohlenkamp S, Lehmann N, Breuckmann F et al (2008) Running: the risk of coronary events: prevalence and prognostic relevance of coronary atherosclerosis in marathon runners. Eur Heart J 29(15):1903–1910 CrossRefPubMed
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Heidbuchel H, La GA (2012) The right heart in athletes. Evidence for exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol 23(2):82–86 PubMed Heidbuchel H, La GA (2012) The right heart in athletes. Evidence for exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol 23(2):82–86 PubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Keefe JH, Schnohr P, Lavie CJ (2013) The dose of running that best confers longevity. Heart 99(8):588–590 O’Keefe JH, Schnohr P, Lavie CJ (2013) The dose of running that best confers longevity. Heart 99(8):588–590
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Schnohr P, O’Keefe JH, Marott JL et al (2015) Dose of jogging and long-term mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol 65(5):411–419 CrossRefPubMed Schnohr P, O’Keefe JH, Marott JL et al (2015) Dose of jogging and long-term mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol 65(5):411–419 CrossRefPubMed
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Scherr J, Braun S, Schuster T et al (2011) 72-h kinetics of high-sensitive troponin T and inflammatory markers after marathon. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(10):1819–1827 CrossRefPubMed Scherr J, Braun S, Schuster T et al (2011) 72-h kinetics of high-sensitive troponin T and inflammatory markers after marathon. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(10):1819–1827 CrossRefPubMed
52.
Zurück zum Zitat La GA, Burns AT, Mooney DJ et al (2012) Exercise-induced right ventricular dysfunction and structural remodelling in endurance athletes. Eur Heart J 33(8):998–1006 CrossRef La GA, Burns AT, Mooney DJ et al (2012) Exercise-induced right ventricular dysfunction and structural remodelling in endurance athletes. Eur Heart J 33(8):998–1006 CrossRef
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Mohlenkamp S, Leineweber K, Lehmann N et al (2014) Coronary atherosclerosis burden, but not transient troponin elevation, predicts long-term outcome in recreational marathon runners. Basic Res Cardiol 109(1):391 CrossRefPubMed Mohlenkamp S, Leineweber K, Lehmann N et al (2014) Coronary atherosclerosis burden, but not transient troponin elevation, predicts long-term outcome in recreational marathon runners. Basic Res Cardiol 109(1):391 CrossRefPubMed
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Wernhart S, Halle M (2014) Atrial fibrillation and long-term sports practice: epidemiology and mechanisms. Clin Res Cardiol [Epub ahead of print] Wernhart S, Halle M (2014) Atrial fibrillation and long-term sports practice: epidemiology and mechanisms. Clin Res Cardiol [Epub ahead of print]
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Schnohr P, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB (2013) Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 177(7):683–689 CrossRefPubMed Schnohr P, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB (2013) Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 177(7):683–689 CrossRefPubMed
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Weston KS, Wisloff U, Coombes JS (2014) High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 48(16):1227–1234 CrossRefPubMed Weston KS, Wisloff U, Coombes JS (2014) High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 48(16):1227–1234 CrossRefPubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Rognmo Ø, Moholdt T, Bakken H et al (2012) Cardiovascular risk of high- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients. Circulation 126(12):1436–1440 CrossRefPubMed Rognmo Ø, Moholdt T, Bakken H et al (2012) Cardiovascular risk of high- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients. Circulation 126(12):1436–1440 CrossRefPubMed
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Halle M (2013) Letter by Halle regarding article, „Cardiovascular risk of high- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients“. Circulation 127(21):e637 CrossRefPubMed Halle M (2013) Letter by Halle regarding article, „Cardiovascular risk of high- versus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in coronary heart disease patients“. Circulation 127(21):e637 CrossRefPubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Prävention kardiovaskulärer Erkrankungen durch Sport und körperliche Aktivität
Eine Frage der Intensität?
verfasst von
S. Wernhart
M. Dinic
A. Pressler
Prof. Dr. M. Halle
Publikationsdatum
01.05.2015
Verlag
Urban & Vogel
Erschienen in
Herz / Ausgabe 3/2015
Print ISSN: 0340-9937
Elektronische ISSN: 1615-6692
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00059-015-4216-4

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 3/2015

Herz 3/2015 Zur Ausgabe

CME Zertifizierte Fortbildung

Pulmonale Hypertonie

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Kardiologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.