We aimed to assess the prognostic value of CYFRA 21-1 in a series of patients with anal canal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation-based therapy.
All patients with anal cancer referred between September 2005 and July 2013 were considered. Patients with diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinoma and in whom pre- and post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were available were included. Serum CYFRA 21-1 levels at initial workup and after therapy were collected. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate prognostic variables for prediction of outcomes.
Eighty-two patients were included. Median follow-up was 60 months (range: 8–128). Pre-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 levels were significantly correlated with tumour stage (p < 0.001). Normal post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly correlated with tumour complete response (p = 0.004). Elevated post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 level was significantly associated with poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.02) and overall survival (p = 0.003). T stage and post-treatment serum CYFRA 21-1 were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively).
Serum CYFRA 21-1 appears to be a useful marker for the monitoring of anal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Elevated post-treatment value appears to be correlated with treatment failure.