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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Prospective malaria control using entomopathogenic fungi: comparative evaluation of impact on transmission and selection for resistance

Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Penelope A Lynch, Uwe Grimm, Matthew B Thomas, Andrew F Read
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-383) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors' contributions

PL developed and applied the model and contributed to study inception, interpretation of results and drafting of the manuscript. UG reviewed the model and contributed to drafting of the manuscript. MT and AR contributed to study inception, interpretation of results and drafting of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Chemical insecticides against adult mosquitoes are a key element in most malaria management programmes, but their efficacy is threatened by the evolution of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. By killing only older mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi can in principle significantly impact parasite transmission while imposing much less selection for resistance. Here an assessment is made as to which of the wide range of possible virulence characteristics for fungal biopesticides best realise this potential.


With mathematical models that capture relevant timings and survival probabilities within successive feeding cycles, transmission and resistance-management metrics are used to compare susceptible and resistant mosquitoes exposed to no intervention, to conventional instant-kill interventions, and to delayed-action biopesticides with a wide range of virulence characteristics.


Fungal biopesticides that generate high rates of mortality at around the time mosquitoes first become able to transmit the malaria parasite offer potential for large reductions in transmission while imposing low fitness costs. The best combinations of control and resistance management are generally accessed at high levels of coverage. Strains which have high virulence in malaria-infected mosquitoes but lower virulence in malaria-free mosquitoes offer the ultimate benefit in terms of minimizing selection pressure whilst maximizing impact on transmission. Exploiting this phenotype should be a target for product development. For indoor residual spray programmes, biopesticides may offer substantial advantages over the widely used pyrethroid-based insecticides. Not only do fungal biopesticides provide substantial resistance management gains in the long term, they may also provide greater reductions in transmission before resistance has evolved. This is because fungal spores do not have contact irritancy, reducing the chances that a blood-fed mosquito can survive an encounter and thus live long enough to transmit malaria.


Delayed-action products, such as fungal biopesticides, have the potential to achieve reductions in transmission comparable with those achieved with existing instant-kill insecticides, and to sustain this control for substantially longer once resistant alleles arise. Given the current insecticide resistance crisis, efforts should continue to fully explore the operational feasibility of this alternative approach.
Additional file 1: Appendix A. Derivation of the feeding cycle model. Detailed description of variables and calculations used in the feeding cycle model. (PDF 173 KB)
Additional file 2: Appendix B. Derivation of the population model. Detailed description of variables and calculations used in the population model. (PDF 163 KB)
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