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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Quinine localizes to a non-acidic compartment within the food vacuole of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Elaine B Bohórquez, Michael Chua, Steven R Meshnick
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-350) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

EBB participated in the design of the study, carried out all of the fluorescence microscopy experiments and data analysis, and drafted the manuscript. MC participated in the acquisition and analysis of microscopy data. SRM conceived of the study and participated in its design. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

The naturally fluorescent compound quinine has long been used to treat malaria infections. Although some evidence suggests that quinine acts in the parasite food vacuole, the mechanism of action of quinine has not yet been resolved. The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance (pfmdr1) gene encodes a food vacuolar membrane transporter and has been linked with parasite resistance to quinine. The effect of multiple pfmdr1 copies on the subcellular localization of quinine was explored.

Methods

Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the subcellular localization of quinine in parasites containing different pfmdr1 copy numbers to determine if copy number of the gene affects drug localization. The acidotropic dye LysoTracker Red was used to label the parasite food vacuole. Time-lapse images were taken to determine quinine localization over time following quinine exposure.

Results

Regardless of pfmdr1 copy number, quinine overlapped with haemozoin but did not colocalize with LysoTracker Red, which labeled the acidic parasite food vacuole.

Conclusions

Quinine localizes to a non-acidic compartment within the food vacuole possibly haemozoin. Pfmdr1 copy number does not affect quinine subcellular localization.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
12936_2012_2544_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 2
12936_2012_2544_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 3
12936_2012_2544_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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