To search for more effective radiation protectors with minimal toxicity, a water-soluble nitroxides Acetamido-Tempol (AA-Tempol) was evaluated for potential radioprotective properties in HUVEC cells (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cell line).
To study the anti-radiation effect of AA-Tempol in cell culture, the viability of irradiated HUVEC cells using a clonogenic survival assay was examined. The anti-apoptosis effects of AA-Tempol using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining in a flow cytometry assay was also evaluated. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the anti-apoptosis effect of AA-Tempol against X-radiation induced HUVEC cell apoptosis, the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and p53 and caspase-3 were examined. The changes in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in HUVEC cells after X-radiation were also investigated.
Pretreatment of the HUVEC cells colony with AA-Tempol 1 h before X-radiation significantly increased the colony survival (p < 0.05) compared with the cells without pretreatment. This demonstrates that AA-Tempol provides an effective radiation protection in the irradiated HUVEC cells, thus reducing apoptosis from 20.1 ± 1.3% in 8 Gy X-radiated cells to 12.2 ± 0.9% (1.0 mmol/L−1 AA-Tempol) in AA-Tempo pretreated HUVEC cells. This implies that 1.0 mM AA-Tempol treatment significantly block the increase of caspase-3 activity in radiated HUVEC cells (P < 0.01), causing down-regulation in expressions of Bax and P53 and up-regulation in the expression of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with AA-Tempol also decreased the MDA activities (P < 0.01) and increase the GSH level (P < 0.05) in HUVEC cells compared to the 8Gy X-radiated cells without pretreatment.
These observations indicate that AA-Tempol is a potential therapeutic agent against the radiation damage.
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- Radio-protective effect and mechanism of 4-Acetamido-2,2,6,6- tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl in HUVEC cells
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