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06.03.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 1/2019

Endocrine 1/2019

Stable consumption of swordfish favors, whereas stable consumption of oily fish protects from, development of postpartum thyroiditis

Zeitschrift:
Endocrine > Ausgabe 1/2019
Autoren:
Salvatore Benvenga, Roberto Vita, Flavia Di Bari, Roberta Granese, Daniela Metro, Maria Le Donne
Wichtige Hinweise
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Abstract

Purpose

In 236 pregnant women, we showed that selective or predominant consumption of swordfish (group A) was associated with high rates of positivity for serum thyroid autoantibodies (TPOAb and TgAb) throughout day 4 postpartum. In contrast, selective or predominant consumption of oily fish (group B) was associated with TPOAb and TgAb negativity. Rates were intermediate in group C (scanty consumption of swordfish) and group D (consumption of fish other than swordfish and oily fish). Gestational TPOAb positivity is a risk factor for postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), which evolves into permanent hypothyroidism (PH) in about 50% of cases. Purpose of this study was to verify that the different rates of thyroid autoantibodies in the four groups translated into different PPT rates.

Methods

We expanded our previous cohort (n = 412) and duration of follow-up (month 12 postpartum), and measured frequency of PPT and PH.

Results

At first timester of gestation, we confirmed the different Ab positivity rates in group A vs. group B (TPOAb = 21.7% vs. 4.7%, P < 0.0001; TgAb = 14.1% vs. 2.4%, P < 0.05). Overall, PPT prevalence was 63/412 (15.3%), but 22/92 in group A (23.9%), 4/85 in group B (4.7%; P < 0.0001 vs. group A), 17/108 (15.7%) in group C, and 16/117 (13.7%) in group D. Approximately half of the PPT women had PH, regardless of fish group.

Conclusions

In conclusion, stable consumption of oily fish (which is enriched in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids) protects from PPT, while stable consumption of swordfish (which is enriched in pollutants) favors PPT. Thus, a dietary prophylaxis of PPT is possible.

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