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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Cancer 1/2018

Testicular self examination among Bahir Dar University students: application of integrated behavioral model

BMC Cancer > Ausgabe 1/2018
Hordofa Gutema, Yamrot Debela, Bizuayehu Walle, Kidist Reba, Habtamu Wondiye
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12885-017-3935-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Though the incidence of Testicular cancer among young is rising, little attention is given to promoting testicular self-examination which is recommended for its early prevention in developing countries. This study aimed to assess testicular self-examination and associated factors among Bahir Dar University students using integrated behavioral model.


Cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar University students in September, 2016. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 884 participants. Data was collected using self-administer questionnaire, entered into EPI Data 3.1 and exported to SPSS 21 for analysis. Path analysis was done using STATA 14.2 to check causal effect of integrated behavioral model constructs on testicular self-examination. Internal reliability of the items was checked using Cronbach’s alpha. Multivariable linear and Logistic regression were used to predict the role of independent variable on Intention and TSE respectively. Findings with p-value <0.05 at 95% confidence interval were considered as statistically significant in the final model.


Only 11.8% of the students practiced testicular self-examination in the previous year. Experiential and Instrumental attitude, Perceived control and Self-efficacy were significantly predicted behavioral intention with β coefficient 0.33, 0.12, −0.08 and 0.36. Students’ academic unit [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.15–0.63], educational status of student’s father AOR = 2.25; CI: 1.15–4.44] and [AOR = 3.00; CI: 1.36–6.64], Intention [OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.31], Know-how of TSE [OR = 3.35, 95% CI:1.94–5.80] and knowledge [AOR = 3.93; CI: 2.30–6.72] were the significant predictors of testicular self-examination. The finding of path analysis also demonstrated as Experiential and Instrumental attitude, Perceived control and Self-efficacy have significant effect on intention with path coefficient of 0.33, 0.12, −0.07 and 0.36. Intention, Knowledge and Know-how have effect on testicular self-examination with path coefficient of 0.2, 0.36 and 0.22 respectively.


Magnitude of testicular self-examination is low among university students and it is a product of the type of the college, family educational status, intention, Know-how and knowledge. So, behavior change communication strategy that focus on these behavioral factors should be designed and implemented to improve students’ regular practice of testicular self-examination.
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