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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 1/2018

The comorbidity of increased arterial stiffness and microalbuminuria in a survey of middle-aged adults in China

BMC Cardiovascular Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2018
Rujia Miao, Liuxin Wu, Ping Ni, Yue Zeng, Zhiheng Chen



Increased arterial stiffness (iAS) and microalbuminuria (MAU), which may occur simultaneously or separately in the general population and share similar risk factors, are markers of macro- and microvascular injuries. Our research investigated the comorbidity of iAS and MAU in the middle-aged population and examined the heterogeneous effects of metabolic risk factors on iAS and MAU.


We selected 11,911 individuals aged 45 to 60 years who underwent a health examination at the 3rd Xiangya Hospital between 2010 and 2014. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was determined according to IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to evaluate the influence of MetS, components of MetS and clusters of MetS on the co-occurrence (MAU(+)/iAS(+)) or non-co-occurrence (MAU(+)/iAS(−) and MAU(−)/iAS(+)) of MAU and iAS.


Reference group was MAU(−)/iAS(−). A positive effect of MetS on the presence of MAU(+)/iAS(−), MAU(−)/iAS(+), or MAU(+)/iAS(+) is listed in ascending order based on odds ratios (ORs = 2.11, 2.41, 4.61, respectively; P < 0.05). Compared with MAU(+)/iAS(−), Elevated blood pressure (BP) (OR = 1.62 vs. 4.83, P < 0.05), triglycerides(TG) (OR = 1.20 vs. 1.37, P < 0.05) were more strongly associated with MAU(−)/iAS(+), whereas fasting blood glucose (FBG) was less associated (OR = 1.37 vs. 1.31, P < 0.05). Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c) (OR = 1.84, P < 0.01) and elevated waist circumference(WC) (OR = 1.28 P < 0.01) were the most strongly associated with MAU(+)/iAS(−). Compared with the individuals without MetS, individuals with the elevated BP, FBG, TG and decreased HDL-c cluster had the greatest likelihood of presenting a MAU(−)/iAS(+) (OR = 5.98, P < 0.01) and MAU(+)/iAS(+) (OR = 13.17, P < 0.01), these likelihood was even greater than the cluster with simultaneous alteration in all five MetS components (OR = 3.89 and 10.77, respectively, P < 0.01), which showed the most strongly association with MAU(+)/iAS(+) (OR = 5.22, P < 0.01).


Based on the heterogeneous influences of MetS-related risk factors on MAU and iAS, these influences could be selectively targeted to identify different types of vascular injuries.
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