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03.11.2020 | Original Article | Ausgabe 12/2020

Annals of Nuclear Medicine 12/2020

The quantification of PET–CT radiotracers to determine minimal scan time using quadratic formulation

Annals of Nuclear Medicine > Ausgabe 12/2020
Mohamad Aminudin Said, Marianie Musarudin, Nur Farahiyah Zulkaffli
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18F is the most extensively used radioisotope in current clinical practices of PET imaging. This selection is based on the several criteria of pure PET radioisotopes with an optimum half-life, and low positron energy that contributes to a smaller positron range. In addition to 18F, other radioisotopes such as 68Ga and 124I are currently gained much attention with the increase in interest in new PET tracers entering the clinical trials. This study aims to determine the minimal scan time per bed position (Tmin) for the 124I and 68Ga based on the quantitative differences in PET imaging of 68Ga and 124I relative to 18F.


The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) procedure guidelines version 2.0 for FDG-PET tumor imaging has adhered for this purpose. A NEMA2012/IEC2008 phantom was filled with tumor to background ratio of 10:1 with the activity concentration of 30 kBq/ml ± 10 and 3 kBq/ml ± 10% for each radioisotope. The phantom was scanned using different acquisition times per bed position (1, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min) to determine the Tmin. The definition of Tmin was performed using an image coefficient of variations (COV) of 15%.


Tmin obtained for 18F, 68Ga and 124I were 3.08, 3.24 and 32.93 min, respectively. Quantitative analyses among 18F, 68Ga and 124I images were performed. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast recovery coefficients (CRC), and visibility (VH) are the image quality parameters analysed in this study. Generally, 68Ga and 18F gave better image quality as compared to 124I for all the parameters studied.


We have defined Tmin for 18F, 68Ga and 124I SPECT CT imaging based on NEMA2012/IEC2008 phantom imaging. Despite the long scanning time suggested by Tmin, improvement in the image quality is acquired especially for 124I. In clinical practice, the long acquisition time, nevertheless, may cause patient discomfort and motion artifact.

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